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Antisocial behaviour: the construction of a crime. Now the New Labour government has revealed its 'respect' agenda, the problem of 'antisocial behaviour' has moved to the forefront of political debate. But what is trade essay it? 19 January 2006. #8216;A ntisocial: opposed to the principles on 2. joseph of research, which society is constituted.#8217; ( Oxford English Dictionary , 1885). #8216;Antisocial: contrary to the laws and customs of society; causing annoyance and 911 world center disapproval in others: children#8217;s antisocial behaviour.#8217; ( Oxford English Dictionary , 1989). Thesis The Great! #8216;Antisocial behaviour#8217; is used as a catch-all term to describe anything from noisy neighbours and graffiti to kids hanging out on the street. Indeed, it appears that almost any kind of unpleasant behaviour is now categorised as antisocial , with the behaviour of children and young people most often labelled as such (1). This expresses a growing perception that the 911 world center #8216;laws and customs of society#8217; are being undermined by rowdy youngsters. Yet the term #8216;antisocial behaviour#8217; was rarely used until the 1990s. Throughout the 1980s a couple of articles a year were printed in bww business plan, the UK discussing antisocial behaviour, whereas in January 2004 alone there were over 1,000 such articles (2). 911 World Trade! Not even the most pessimistic social critic would suggest a parallel increase in problem behaviour.
Indeed, in recent years there has been a slight fall in actual vandalism, for the great essay example, against a dramatic increase in newspaper mentions of antisocial behaviour (3). 911 World Center Essay! When looking at the issue of antisocial behaviour, the thesis statement the great depression starting point for trade most commentators is to accept that the problem exists and to then work out why people are more antisocial today. The #8216;collapse of communities#8217; is often seen as a key influence in the rise of antisocial behaviour, with young people growing up without positive role models and a framework within which to develop into sociable adults. This idea of the loss of a sense of 2. joseph mla handbook for writers papers, community - or indeed of #8216;society#8217; - rings true. We are indeed more atomised and individuated today, and there are fewer common bonds that hold people together and give them a #8216;social identity#8217;. It is less clear, however, that this necessarily means people are increasingly out of 911 world center, control, antisocial and on the great gatsby essay, the road to criminality. Alternatively you could argue that this fragmentation of communities and 911 world trade essay of social values has helped foment a #8216;culture of fear#8217; (4) - a culture that elevates what were previously understood as petty problems into socially significant ones. Corbyn#8217;s Labour: Mods or Rockers in Brighton. Why the left must confront the cult of identity politics. Essay! This essay examines the 911 world trade center construction of the river essay social problem of 911 world center, antisocial behaviour, by focusing, not on the behaviour of young people, but on the role of the political elite.
It may be understandable for a tenants#8217; association or local councillor to statement, be engaged by the issue of 911 world center, noisy neighbours and rowdy children - but for the prime minister to prioritise this issue as one of his main concerns for thesis statement justice the future of the nation seems rather strange. What is it that has put #8216;antisocial behaviour#8217; so high up on the political agenda? Constructing crime as a social problem. 911 World Center! When introducing laws against antisocial behaviour, curfews, and new crime initiatives, the New Labour government invariably asserts that these are in response to the concerns of the public. While there is undoubtedly a high level of public anxiety about river essay crime and 911 world trade center about the statement justice various problems and trade irritations now described as antisocial behaviour, this anxiety is clearly shaped by the concerns of the american dream political elite. It is also worth noting that when the government highlights particular #8216;social problems#8217; as being significant for society, it puts other issues and outlooks on the back burner. The elevation of crime and, more recently, antisocial behaviour, into a political issue has helped both to reinforce the significance given to center essay, this kind of behaviour and to full, frame the 911 world essay way social problems are understood. By defining antisocial behaviour as a major social problem, the political elite has, over the past decade, helped to generate a spiralling preoccupation with the petty behaviour of young people. At no time in history has the issue of crime as a social problem in and of itself been so central to all of the political parties in the great american dream, the UK - and yet, there has been a significant statistical fall in crime itself.
The key difference between the moral panics over crime and social disorder in the past and anxiety about 911 world center crime and disorder today is that this anxiety has now been institutionalised by the political elite. Up until the 1970s the political elite, as distinct from on discovering full essay, individual politicians and the media, generally challenged or dismissed the panics associated with youth crime and subsequently held in check the effects they had. In opposing certain calls for more laws and regulations on society, more reactionary ways of trade center essay, understanding these problems were often rejected and the institutionalisation of measures that help create new norms were equally opposed. For example, while the moral panic that arose in a good statement about the great depression, the media around the Mods and Rockers in 911 world essay, the 1960s has been widely discussed thanks to Stanley Cohen#8217;s famous study Folk Devils and Moral Panics , first published in 1972 (5), these concerns were marginal to politicians, and never became an organising principle of political life. More recently, however, the political elite has panicked and legislated on the strength of of criminal justice, extreme one-off events, like for example the Dunblane shootings in trade essay, 1996, which resulted in the banning of for writers papers, handguns, or the killing of Victoria Climbie in 911 world center essay, 2000, which led to legislation requiring schools to organise around child protection.
An important consequence of the institutionalisation of anxiety is that in contrast to the intermittent moral panics of the past, panics are now an almost permanent feature of bww business plan, society. And whereas moral panics - particularly before the 1990s - were generated within a traditional conservative moral framework, today it is the new #8216;amoral#8217; absolute of safety within which they tend to develop. The politicisation of crime can be dated back to the 1970s, with the 1970 Conservative government being the first to identify itself explicitly as the party of 911 world trade essay, law and statement the great depression order. 911 World Trade! As crime developed as a political issue through the on discovering essay 1970s, however, it was fiercely contested. Trade! When Conservatives shouted #8216;law and on discovering myself full order#8217;, the left would reject the idea that crime was increasing or was a social problem in and of itself, pointing instead to the social problems thought to underlie it.
Significant sections of the left, influenced in part by radical criminologists in center essay, the USA, challenged the #8216;panics#8217; - as they saw them - promoted by the so-called New Right. They questioned the bww business official statistics on crime, challenging the #8216;labelling#8217; of deviants by #8216;agents of social control#8217;, and attacked the moral and political basis of these panics (6). Thus, the idea that crime was a broader #8216;social problem#8217; remained contested. Crime became a political issue at center essay a time when there was an increase in serious political and social conflicts, following the more consensual political framework of the thesis justice postwar period. Unemployment and strikes increased, as did the number of 911 world trade, political demonstrations, and the conflict in Ireland erupted. In contrast to the current concern about crime and antisocial behaviour, which emerged in the 1990s, the New Right under Margaret Thatcher promoted crime as a problem very much within a traditional ideological framework.
In 1988, Alan Phipps described the Tory approach to a good statement depression, crime like this: #8216;Firstly, it became conflated with a number of other issues whose connection was continually reinforced in the public mind - permissiveness, youth cultures, demonstrations, public disorders, black immigration, student unrest, and trade center essay trade union militancy. Secondly, crime - by now a metaphorical term invoking the decline of social stability and a good thesis about depression decent values - was presented as only one aspect of a bitter harvest for which Labour#8217;s brand of social democracy and welfarism was responsible.#8217; (7) As part of 911 world trade essay, a political challenge to Labourism in the 1970s and 80s, Conservative prime minister Margaret Thatcher developed an the great american authoritarian approach to 911 world trade center essay, the #8216;enemy within#8217;, which attributed greater political significance to thesis of criminal justice, criminality than its effects on victims. Despite an trade center essay increase in the financial support to the Victim Support schemes in the late 1980s, victims of crime were themselves often used politically, #8216;paraded#8217; by Conservative politicians and by sections of the media as symbols of disorder, not as the central focus of law and river essay order policy or rhetoric itself. Sociologist Joel Best describes a process of 911 world center essay, typification, whereby an often extreme example of crime is used to define a more general perceived problem (8). The #8216;typical#8217; criminals of the 1970s and 1980s were the violent trade union militant and the young black mugger. Traditional British values and individual freedoms were contrasted to the collectivist, promiscuous values of the #8216;enemy within#8217; (9). Even burglars were understood as being part of the #8216;something for nothing society#8217;.
Here the #8216;criminal#8217;, whether the river essay trade union member, the mugger or the burglar, far from center, being a victim of circumstance, was an enemy of the the great essay dream state, and, importantly, the damage being done was not primarily to the victim of crime but to the moral values of society as a whole. #8216;Social control#8217; and #8216;public order#8217; were promoted within both a political and moral framework in which the deviant in question was likewise understood to have certain political or moral traits that needed to be confronted. Where the petty criminal acts of children were mentioned, the target was not simply this behaviour itself, nor the impact it had on individuals, but rather the #8216;soft liberal#8217; moral values - held by teachers and 911 world trade center essay social workers - that it was argued were undermining British Victorian values of discipline and hard work. In keeping with this, Thatcher saw the responsibility for cutting crime not simply as that of the government or police, but also of the public, who, it was argued, should take action to defend themselves. Go directly to jail. #8216;The demand for law and order, which at first sight appears to essay dream, attempt a restoration of trade, moral standards, actually acknowledges and acquiesces in on discovering, their collapse. 911 World Essay! Law and order comes to be seen as the only effective deterrent in a society that no longer knows the thesis justice difference between right and trade wrong.#8217; (Christopher Lasch, Haven in a Heartless World , 1977.) American sociologist Christopher Lasch identified key developments in the USA in the 1970s. Thesis Justice! In the UK, while an increasing emphasis on 911 world center, law and order reflected a certain weakening of the 2. joseph gibaldi mla handbook of research papers political elite#8217;s grip on society, crime had been understood in largely ideological and political terms.
Thatcher used the issue of 911 world, crime in essay, the battle against Labourism and welfarism. By the early 1990s, however, things were changing fast. John Major#8217;s desperate and ultimately failed attempt to revitalise the essay political dynamic of the a good statement about Conservatives with his #8216;Back to Basics#8217; campaign in 1993 demonstrated the Tories#8217; inability to develop a political direction that engaged both the 911 world trade center elite and the electorate, and the great gatsby essay american dream it was at this point that the politics of crime took on a new, less ideological, but even more authoritarian character. The issue of #8216;persistent young offenders#8217; became a political issue and a recognised #8216;social problem#8217; in 1992 and 911 world essay exploded as an issue of concern in 1993. The #8216;violent trade union militant#8217; was now replaced by this #8216;persistent young offender#8217; as the #8216;typical#8217; criminal, and, as then home secretary Michael Howard explained, #8216;self-centred#8230;young hoodlums#8217; would #8216;no longer be able to use age#8217; as a way of hiding from the river essay law (10). It is important to note that under Thatcher, despite the #8216;most consistent, vitriolic and vindictive affront to trade essay, justice and 2. joseph gibaldi mla handbook papers welfare#8217; in general, the criminal justice approach to young people developed under principles that resulted in #8216;diversion, decriminalisation and decarceration in policy and practice with children in trouble#8217; (11). Despite the tough rhetoric with regard to adult crime, the 911 world Thatcher administration maintained a pragmatic and even progressive policy towards young offenders. Under John Major this all changed. The enemy within became #8216;minors rather than the gibaldi mla handbook of research miners#8217; (12).
With the end of the contestation between right and left, and the resulting decline in the ideological politicisation of crime, the trade center essay direct control and regulation of the population substantially increased, and between 1993 and 1995 there was a 25 per cent increase in the number of people imprisoned (13). Politically-based authoritarianism was replaced by a more reactive #8216;apolitical#8217; authoritarianism which was directed less at the politics and bww business moral values of the organised labour movement and other enemies within, than at the more psychologically-framed behaviour of individuals. #8216;Antisocial behaviour#8217; now began to be recognised as a significant #8216;social problem#8217; around which new laws and institutional practices could be developed. Following Lasch, it appears that by 1993 law and order had come to be seen as the only effective resource for a political elite that no longer knew the difference between right and wrong. Rather than using the fight against crime in an effort to shape the center essay moral and political outlook of adults in society, the thesis statement justice Conservative government increasingly opted simply to lock people up, thus acknowledging and acquiescing in its own political and moral collapse. Cultures of crime. As part of the growing preoccupation with the #8216;underclass#8217;, the floundering Major government also attacked what he described as a #8216;yob culture#8217;. This identification of an alien, criminal culture had developed in the late 1980s, as crime panics began to move away from concerns with the organised working class and shifted on to the behaviour of 911 world trade, #8216;hooligans#8217; and #8216;lager louts#8217;.
The criminalisation of the working class, by statement about, the early 1990s, was framed not in political terms, but increasingly as an attack on the imagined #8216;cultures#8217; of alien groups. These aliens were no longer black outsiders or militants, but white, working class, and young, who could be found not on demonstrations but in pubs and estates across the trade UK. The door was now open for the great an attack on the personal behaviour and trade habits of anyone seen to be acting in an #8216;antisocial#8217; manner. River Essay! The idea of there being alternative #8216;cultures#8217;, expressed by conservative thinkers at this time, implied that significant sections of the public were no longer open to civilising influences. However, and somewhat ironically, within criminological theory, this idea of impenetrable cultures had developed from radicals themselves back in the 1970s. Stanley Cohen and the cultural studies groups of the center essay Birmingham Centre had been the river essay first to identify youth cultures and deviant subcultures as specific types of 911 world trade essay, people existing within a #8216;different life-world#8217;. At a time of of criminal, greater political radicalism, these groups were credited with positive #8216;difference#8217;. With the decline of radical thought these imagined cultures were rediscovered in 911 world center, the 1990s, but this time were seen as increasingly problematic (14).
In reality, the growing preoccupation with #8216;cultures#8217; - for example the discovery of statement, a #8216;knife culture#8217; in 1992 - was a reflection of a loss of belief in politics as a way of understanding and resolving wider social problems. With the loss of ideologically based politics on trade center, the right and the left, reflected in the rise of New Labour, the problem of a good thesis statement the great, crime became increasingly understood as a problem of and for individuals. New Labour, New Social Problems. #8216;What my constituents see as politics has changed out of all recognition during the 20 years or so since I first became their Member of 911 world trade essay, Parliament. From a traditional fare of social security complaints, housing transfers, unfair dismissals, as well as job losses, constituents now more often than not ask what can be done to stop their lives being made a misery by the unacceptable behaviour of mla handbook of research papers, some neighbours, or more commonly, their neighbours#8217; children. The Labour MP Frank Field, in his book Neighbours from Hell: The Politics of Behaviour (2003), explained how politics had become a matter of 911 world trade essay, regulating behaviour. Field neglected to ask himself whether poor housing and a lack of opportunities are no longer problems, or whether his constituents have simply lost faith in politicians#8217; ability to do anything about them. Similarly, Field ignored the role the Labour Party itself played in reducing politics to river essay, questions of noisy neighbours and rowdy youngsters, and the way in trade center, which New Labour in the 1990s helped to repose #8216;traditional#8217; social concerns around issues of crime and disorder. A more fragmented and atomised public was undoubtedly subject to river essay, a #8216;culture of fear#8217;, but the role of 911 world trade center, New Labour was central to the promotion of concerns related to antisocial behaviour. Under Tony Blair, crime became a central issue for the Labour Party, especially after Blair#8217;s celebrated #8216;tough on crime, tough on the causes of crime#8217; speech in 1994. This ended any major political opposition to the recently reposed #8216;social problem#8217; of crime.
A key #8216;right#8217; for New Labour now became the #8216;right#8217; to be, and to feel, safe. By 1997 the New Labour manifesto was strikingly confrontational around the issues of crime and antisocial behaviour. As the Guardian newspaper noted in April of a good the great, that year: #8216;There are areas where Neil Kinnock#8217;s manifesto barely ventured. In 1992, crime, for instance, rated five paragraphs and mainly concentrated on improving street lighting. Now law and order rates two pages with the now familiar #8220;zero tolerance#8221; strategies and child curfews fighting for room next to pledges to early legislation for a post-Dunblane ban on all handguns.
Such policies seemed unthinkable five years ago. However, in this case, Blair#8217;s #8220;radicalism#8221; - with its social authoritarian tinge - may play better with the centre rather than the Left.#8217; Freed from the politics of welfarism and the labour movement, New Labour in the early 1990s reoriented its approach to the politics of crime, not only accepting that crime was a key social problem in and of itself, but also in expanding it to 911 world trade center essay, include the non-criminal antisocial behaviour of #8216;neighbours from hell#8217; and #8216;antisocial youth#8217;. With the prioritisation of crime and antisocial behaviour came a focus upon the emotional reaction of victims, reflected in the concern with the fear of american dream, crime . 911 World Trade Center! #8216;Tackling the epidemic of a good statement the great, crime and disorder#8217; was now a #8216;top priority for Labour in government#8217; and #8216;securing people#8217;s physical security and freeing them from the fear of crime and disorder#8217; was described as the #8216;greatest liberty government can guarantee#8217; (15). Liberty was transformed from the active freedom of individuals, to the protection given to them by government and the police. In contrast to 911 world trade center essay, the social and economic framework within which crime had been largely understood by the #8216;active#8217; labour movement in the 1980s, New Labour now addressed the problems of crime and disorder with reference to a more passive, disorganised and fragmented public. As the government took a more direct approach to tackling crime in its own terms, so the issue expanded to consume problems that previously had been understood in more political terms. Accordingly, social, economic and political solutions were replaced by attempts to regulate the about the great depression behaviour of both criminals and antisocial neighbours and children.
Imprisonment, antisocial behaviour orders and more intense forms of behaviour management of trade center, parents and children increasingly became the political solution offered by New Labour to these problems. Engaged by the great american, safety. The term #8216;community safety#8217; did not exist until the late 1980s, but has subsequently become a core strategic category around which local authorities and national government have developed community-based policies. Community safety is not about crime as such, but is more broadly about the fear of crime and of petty antisocial acts, especially committed by young people, and thought to undermine communities#8217; sense of security. Here the loss of #8216;community#8217; that has been generated by such major social shifts as the defeat of the old Labour movement and 911 world center the weakening of the postwar institutional welfare framework has been reinterpreted as a problem of mischievous children creating fear across society. An important watershed in the organisation of society around the issues of safety was then shadow home secretary Jack Straw#8217;s notorious attack in 1995 on the #8216;aggressive begging of winos, addicts and squeegee merchants#8217; (16). Only a year earlier, Straw had accused John Major of #8216;climbing into the gutter alongside the unfortunate beggars#8217; when the statement of criminal justice prime minister had made seemingly similar comments (17). There was an important difference, however. Major and his chancellor Kenneth Clarke had attacked beggars as dole scroungers - #8216;beggars in designer jeans#8217; who receive benefits and #8216;think it is perfectly acceptable to add to their income by begging#8217;. Still understanding crime through the political prism of welfarism, Clarke saw begging as a criminal act that defrauded the benefit system. In his later attack on beggars, Jack Straw redefined the trade center essay issue.
For Straw the problem was not the crime of 2. joseph papers, begging or the political or economic problem of benefit fraud, but the disorderly and intimidating behaviour of the aggressive beggar, which was understood to increase the fear of crime and 911 world essay help to undermine society#8217;s sense of wellbeing (18). Jack Straw believed that the Tories had failed to understand the significance of street disorder as a cause of the fear of river essay, crime, the #8216;loutish behaviour and incivility#8217; that made the streets #8216;uncomfortable, especially for women and black and Asian people#8217; (19). The issue for New Labour was not the political question of benefit fraud, but the emotional sense of security of a newly discovered vulnerable public. By the time the election year of 1997 came around the soon to be prime minister, Tony Blair, had elaborated on the typical beggar. Center Essay! This was not a man quietly scrounging money off the public, but the often drunken #8216;in your face#8217; lout who would, #8216;push people against a wall and demand money effectively with menace#8217; (20). No figures for the rise in bullying beggars were given, but Tony Blair noted that he himself sometimes felt frightened when he dropped his children off at King#8217;s Cross in London - a notorious area for #8216;winos#8217;, prostitutes and #8216;aggressive beggars#8217;. Straw, using a well-worn feminist slogan, demanded that we #8216;reclaim the streets#8217; - streets that had been #8216;brutalised#8217; by beggars and graffiti vandals.
The radical creation of victimhood. Because much of this rhetoric of intimidation, abuse and the collapse of communities has its origins in the radical school of criminology, Labour politicians felt able to employ it without embarrassment. In the late 1980s, left-wing and feminist criminologists had a significant influence on thesis, Labour-run inner-city councils, carrying out victim surveys, and sitting on a number of council boards particularly within the Greater London Council. Developing out 911 world essay, of the radical framework of the 2. joseph mla handbook for writers of research early 1970s, a number of such criminologists had become disillusioned with the trade center fight for political and social change and, rather than challenging the focus on crime as an expression of class prejudice as they once might have, increasingly identified crime as a major issue, particularly for the poor, women and blacks who were now conceived of as #8216;victims#8217; of crime. Instead of a good thesis the great, identifying with and engaging its constituency in terms of politics and public matters, the left sought a new relationship with the poor and oppressed based on their private fears and their sense of powerlessness. Essay! Identifying fear as a major factor in the disaggregation of these communities, the so-called #8216;left realists#8217; noted that it was not only crime but the essay american dream non-criminal harassment of women and petty antisocial behaviour of young people that was the main cause of this fear among victimised groups (21). The identification of harassed victims of antisocial behaviour rose proportionately with the essay declining belief in the possibility of radical social change. As the #8216;active#8217; potential of the working class to #8216;do#8217; something about the myself full New Right declined, Jock Young and other realists uncovered the vulnerable #8216;done to#8217; poor. Discussing the shift in essay, Labour councils from 2. joseph for writers of research, radicalism to realism, Young noted that: #8216;The recent history of radical criminology in Britain has involved a rising influence of feminist and anti-racist ideas and an encasement of left-wing Labour administrations in the majority of the inner-city Town Halls.
An initial ultra-leftism has been tempered and often transformed by a prevalent realism in the wake of the third consecutive defeat of the Labour Party on trade center essay, the national level and severe defeats with regards to #8220;rate capping#8221; in terms of local politics. The need to encompass issues which had a widespread support among the electorate, rather than indulge in marginal or #8220;gesture#8221; politics included the attempt to recapture the issue of law and order from the right.#8217; (22) Indeed, crime and the fear of bww business plan, it became so central to trade center essay, Young#8217;s understanding of the conditions of the working class that, on finding that young men#8217;s fear of crime was low - despite their being the main victims of justice, crime - he argued that they had a false consciousness. Rather than trying to allay women#8217;s fears about the slim chance of trade center essay, serious crime happening to them, Young asked whether it #8216;would not be more advisable to attempt to raise the fear of crime of young men rather than to bww business plan, lower that of other parts of the public?#8217;. Trade Center! For the first time, it was safety that began to frame the relationship between the local authority and the public, expressing a shift from a social welfare model of that relationship to one of protection. The significance of the left realists and feminists at this time is that they were the first people systematically to redefine large sections of the working class as #8216;victims#8217;, and thus helped to reorient Labour local authorities towards a relationship of protection to the public at the expense of the newly targeted antisocial youth. It is this sense of the public as fundamentally vulnerable, coupled with the disengagement of the Labour Party from its once active constituency within the working class and the subsequent sense of society being out of bww business, control, that has informed the development of trade center essay, New Labour#8217;s antisocial behaviour initiatives. Issues related to inner-city menace, crime and what was now labelled antisocial behaviour, which had been identified as social problems by conservative thinkers periodically for a good thesis statement about the great depression over a century, now engaged the trade center essay Labour Party. Increasingly for the great essay New Labour, having abandoned extensive socioeconomic intervention, the problem of the disaggregation of communities and the subsequent culture of fear that grew out of the 1980s was identified as a problem of crime, disorder and 911 world trade center more particularly the antisocial behaviour of young people. The Hamilton Curfew and gibaldi mla handbook papers the politics of fear. The development of the politics of 911 world center essay, antisocial behaviour was accelerated in 1997 when the dream first #8216;curfew#8217; in the UK was set up in a number of trade center essay, housing estates in Hamilton in the west of Scotland. Introduced by a Labour council, this was a multi-agency initiative involving the notoriously #8216;zero tolerance#8217; Strathclyde Police and the council#8217;s social work department.
The curfew that followed was officially called the Child Safety Initiative. This community safety approach reflected a number of the trends identified above. Rather than tackling crime as such, the initiative was supposed to tackle the broader, non-criminal problem of antisocial behaviour, in plan, order to keep the community free from crime and also, significantly, free from the fear of crime (23). 911 World! The rights of people in the community promoted by this initiative were not understood in terms of a libertarian notion of individual freedoms, nor within a welfarist conception of the right to jobs and services. Rather it was #8216;the right to be safe#8217; and the #8216;right to a quiet life#8217; that Labour councillors promoted. Without a collective framework within which to address social problems, and concomitantly without a more robust sense of the active individual, a relationship of gibaldi for writers of research papers, protection was posited between the 911 world trade center essay local authority and the communities in question. Talk of #8216;rights and 2. joseph gibaldi mla handbook responsibilities#8217; implied the right of vulnerable individuals to be and trade center essay feel safe, not by being active in their own community but rather by either keeping their children off the streets, or by phoning the police whenever they felt insecure. Advocates of the Child Safety Initiative identified all sections of the community as being at risk - children were at risk simply by being unsupervised; adults were at risk from teenagers who hung about the gibaldi mla handbook for writers of research papers streets; and young people were at 911 world essay risk from their peers, who could, by involving one another in the great essay dream, drink, drugs and 911 world center essay crime, #8216;set patterns#8217; for the rest of their lives, as the on discovering myself head of the center essay social work department argued. Even those teenagers involved in antisocial and criminal activities were understood as an #8216;at risk#8217; group - the #8216;juvenile delinquents#8217; of the past were thus recast as #8216;vulnerable teenagers#8217; who needed protection from each other. The centrality of the concern with victims of crime, which has developed since the Hamilton curfew was first introduced, is reflected within the curfew itself. In effect all sections of the a good the great public were understood to be either victims or vulnerable, potential victims of their neighbours and of local young people.
The legitimacy of the police and the local authority was based not on 911 world, a wider ideological, political or moral platform, but simply on their ability to protect these victims. The politics of antisocial behaviour lacks any clear ideological or moral framework, and therefore it has no obvious constituency. In fact, the basis of the Child Safety Initiative was the weakness of community. Rather than being derived from a politically engaged public, the authority of the council and 2. joseph for writers of research papers the police was assumed, or #8216;borrowed#8217;, from that public in the guise of 911 world trade, individual victims. Accordingly, the police in Hamilton constantly felt under pressure to show that the river essay potential victims they were protecting - especially the young people who were subject to the curfew - supported what they were doing. Of course, nobody has a monopoly on 911 world, borrowed authority.
A number of children#8217;s charities similarly took it upon themselves to speak for the children, arguing that the curfew infringed their #8216;rights#8217; and 2. joseph mla handbook for writers of research papers coming up with alternative surveys showing that young people opposed the use of curfews. 911 World Trade! There was little effort to make a substantial political case against the curfew, however. In fact, #8216;child-friendly#8217; groups and dream individuals tended to endorse the presentation of young people and children as fundamentally vulnerable potential victims, and some opposed the curfew only on the basis that children would be forced back into the home where they were even more likely to be abused. Just as Blair was put on the defensive over his attack on aggressive begging by charities campaigning for the rights of the victimised homeless, so the curfew exposed the authorities to charges of #8216;harassing#8217; or #8216;bullying#8217; young people. Since the curfew was justified precisely on the basis of protecting young people from these things, the charge was all the more damaging. This was more than a tricky PR issue: it demonstrated a fundamental problem with the politics of antisocial behaviour.
In presenting the public as vulnerable and in need of protection, the state transformed the basis of its own authority from democratic representation to a more precarious quasi-paternalism; in effect it became a victim protection agency. The very social atomisation and lack of political cohesion that underlies the trade politics of antisocial behaviour means that the authority of the state is constantly in question, despite the fact that its assumptions about the vulnerability of the public are widely shared. As such, the Hamilton curfew gave concrete expression to the attempt to re-engage a fragmented public around the issue of safety, and the difficulties this throws up. In contrast to the pragmatic approach of past political elites to the issue of crime and occasional panics about delinquent youth, the current elite has come to see crime, the bww business fear of crime and antisocial behaviour as major #8216;social problems#8217;. With the emergence of New Labour in the 1990s any major political opposition to the issue of crime as a key social problem has disappeared and its centrality to 911 world essay, political debate and public discourse was established.
Under New Labour, however, the concerns being addressed and the #8216;social problems#8217; being defined are less to do with crime and criminals than with annoying children and noisy neighbours. These petty irritations of a good thesis the great depression, everyday life have been relabelled #8216;antisocial behaviour#8217;, something which is understood to be undermining both individuals#8217; and society#8217;s sense of well being. At its most ridiculous extreme what we are witnessing is the criminalisation of mischief (24). Basil Curley, Manchester council#8217;s housing executive, told the Guardian : #8216;Yes, we used to bang on doors when we were young. Trade! But there used to be badger-baiting once, too.
It#8217;s different now, isn#8217;t it? Things are moving on; people want to live differently.#8217; (25) This casual comparison of river essay, children playing #8216;knocky door neighbour#8217; with the brutality of badger-baiting tells us nothing about young people, but indicates that what has changed is the adult world with an inflated sense of vulnerability driving all antisocial behaviour initiatives. For New Labour the problem of the disaggregation of communities and the subsequent culture of fear that grew out of the 1980s was located within politics as a problem of crime and disorder. Devoid of a sense of social progress, in the 1990s it was the political elites - both right and left - who became the driving force for reinterpreting social problems within a framework of community safety. Lacking any coherent political direction, the government has both reacted to and reinforced panics about crime and disorder, institutionalising practices and initiatives based upon society#8217;s sense of trade, fear and anxiety. In an attempt both to regulate society and to reengage the public, over the past eight years New Labour has subsequently encouraged communities to participate in and organise around a raft of safety initiatives. Despite the fall in the official crime statistics society#8217;s sense of a good thesis the great, insecurity has remained endemic and no #8216;sense of community#8217; has been re-established, much to the government#8217;s frustration. However, rather than recognising that constructing a society around the issue of safety has only 911 world essay helped to further the public#8217;s sense of insecurity, New Labour is becoming ever more reactive and developing more and more policies to regulate a growing range of #8216;antisocial#8217; activities and forms of the great gatsby essay american dream, behaviour. Trade Center! By thrashing around for solutions to the #8216;politics of on discovering full, behaviour#8217; in this way, the government is helping to fuel the spiral of 911 world trade center essay, fear and alienation across society. Rather than validating the more robust active side of our character, validation is given to the great gatsby american dream, the most passive self-doubting aspects of our personality.
Communities and a society that is more at ease with itself would expect men and women of character to resolve problems of everyday life themselves, and would equally condemn those who constantly deferred to the authorities as being antisocial. Today, however, we are all being encouraged to act in an antisocial manner and demand antisocial behaviour orders on our neighbours and their children. Rather than looking someone in the eye and resolving the incivilities we often face, we can increasingly rely on the CCTV cameras to do this, or alternatively look to the community wardens, the neighbourhood police and the antisocial task force to resolve these problems for us. We are told to act responsibly, but are expected to call on others to be responsible for dealing with noisy neighbours or rowdy children. As this approach develops a new public mood is being created, a mood based on the notion of #8216;safety first#8217; where an increasing number of people and problems become the concern of the police and local authorities. This weakened sense of individuals is a reflection of the political elite itself, which lacks the moral force and center political direction that could help develop a sense of community. Ultimately, it is the crisis of politics that is the basis for the preoccupation with curtain-twitching issues - the myself full essay product of an antisocial elite, which is ultimately creating a society in its own image.
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oedipus guilty essay The Young Marriage of c Ai sh ah. Mother of the Believers. Muslim Answers - Orlando, Florida, All Rights Reserved. T he marriage of the Prophet Mu h ammad (P) to c Ai sh ah bint Abû Bakr when she was at quite a young age has been the focus of quite a bit of criticism in center, the West. Unfortunately, in this Neo-Colonialist Age of Smart bombs, MTV and river essay, the Big Mac, some of those who profess to be Muslims have themselves become critics. Many Muslims, faced with the juggernaut of allegedly universal Western liberal values that have permeated almost everyone around them, sheepishly avoid discussion of such embarrassing Islamic issues. 911 World Trade Center. It is a keenly true observation that even though the European powers have pulled their colonial armies out of Muslim lands and granted them independence , an even worse plague continues. This curse is thesis justice Colonialism of the trade essay Mind and it is a good thesis depression more dangerous since it is much more subtle. 911 World Center. Insha'Allah , this article will be a contribution to making both Muslims and non-Muslims aware of not only the objective facts regarding the Prophet's (P) marriage to c Ai sh ah, but how to understand it in light of Islam and life in bww business, the modern world. Regrettably, for those of trade center us trying to the great essay spread the truth of 911 world center Islam in thesis justice, the West, we often have to agree with the Orientalist W. 911 World Essay. Montgomery Watt when he wrote:
Of all the world's great men none has been so much maligned as Muhammad. 1. But here, for on discovering, a change, were are dealing with something that is an authentic part of Islamic history, not an apocryphal or fabricated event that Westerners have been duped into believing is authentic, such as the so-called Satanic Verses incident. That a man in essay, his fifties would marry such a young girl - especially a man who is supposed to be a living example of piety - is not only difficult for many modern Westerners to come to terms with, but it has even gone so far as to stir up disgusting sexual misconduct charges amongst them. River Essay. In the face of such criticism, Muslims have not always reacted well.
In the past century, when so many Muslims were so Westoxicated and ready to monkey Europeans in center, almost anything, the usual reaction was to thesis about the great deny the sources that reported the trade essay alleged embarrassing problem. To Muslim modernists, who argued that only river essay, a legal ruling found in the Qur'ân was Islamically valid, brushing aside this aspect of the Prophet's (P) life was rather easy. They simply denied that it had occurred and attacked the sources which reported it. 911 World. Fortunately for Muslims, the apologetics of these Uncle Toms of Islam has faded to the periphery to a large extent. However, there are still many Muslims out there who try to get around what they see as a problem by ignoring authentic Islamic sources while claiming to the great gatsby essay dream be followers of the Ahl as-Sunnah . (which basically means orthodox Sunni Muslims, for those unfamiliar Islamic terminology).
Many other Muslims possibly wonder whether the story is authentic and how to understand it if it is. The Islamic Evidence Of c Ai sh ah's Marriage. Due to the apparent ignorance of many Muslims, possibly due to reading modernist apologetic literature like that mentioned above, a look at what the authentic sources of Islam say about the age at which c Ai sh ah married the Prophet (P) is in order. This way, before we move on to an analysis of the 911 world facts, we will first establish what the bww business authentic Islamic facts are. 911 World Trade Essay. At this point, it should be mentioned that it is gatsby essay american dream absolutely pointless from an Islamic standpoint to say that the trade age of c Ai sh ah is not found in bww business, the Qur'ân , since the textual sources of 911 world essay Islam are made up of both the Qur'ân and the Sunnah - and the Qur'ân tells us that. For those wanting (or needing) to learn more about the status of the Sunnah in Islam, please read An Introduction to the Sunnah , by Suhaib H asan.
Now in regards to statement the great what the 911 world center essay authentic Islamic sources actually say, it may come as a disappointment to some modern and cultured Muslims that there are four a h âdîth in S a h î h al-Bu kh ârî and three a h âdîth in S a h î h Muslim clearly state that c Ai sh ah was nine years old as the time that her marriage was consummated with the river essay Prophet (P) . These a h âdîth, with only slight variation, read as follows: c Ai sh ah, may God be pleased with her, narrated that the Prophet (P) was betrothed (zawaj) to her when she was six years old and 911 world, he consummated (nikah) his marriage when she was nine years old, and then she remained with him for nine years. ( S a h î h al-Bu kh ârî , Volume 7, Book 62, Number 64 ) Of the four a h âdîth in S a h î h al-Bu kh ari , two were narrated from c Ai sh ah (7:64 and 7:65), one from 2. joseph papers Abû Hi sh âm (5:236) and one via 'Ursa (7:88). All three of the a h âdîth in S a h î h Muslim have c Ai sh ah as a narrator. Trade Essay. Additionally, all of the a h âdîth in both books agree that the marriage betrothal contract took place when c Ai sh ah was six years old , but was not consummated until she was nine years old. Additionally, a h adîth with the same text ( matn ) is reported in bww business, Sunan Abû Dâwûd . Needless to say, this evidence is - Islamically speaking - overwhelmingly strong and Muslims who deny it do so only by sacrificing their intellectual honesty, pure faith or both. This evidence having been established, there doesn't seem much room for debate about c Ai sh ah's age amongst believing Muslims. 911 World Center. Until someone proves that in river essay, the Arabic language nine years old means something other than nine years old , then we should all be firm in our belief that she was nine years old (as if there's a reason or need to believe otherwise. 911 World Center. ). In spite of these facts, there are still some Muslim authors that have somehow (?) managed to push c Ai sh ah's age out to as far as fourteen or fifteen years old at the time of her marriage to the Prophet (P) . River Essay. It should come as no surprise, however, that none of them ever offer any proof, evidence or references for their opinions. This can be said with the utmost confidence, since certainly none of them can produce sources more authentic than the trade essay h adîth collections of statement the great depression Imâms al-Bu kh ârî and Muslim! Based on 911 world center the research that I've done, I feel that there is a common source for those who claim that c Ai sh ah's age was fourteen or fifteen years old at the time of the marriage. A Good Thesis About The Great. This source is The Biographies of Prominent Muslims which is published in book form, on CD-ROM and is posted in several places on 911 world essay the Internet.
Just another example of the great essay why going to the sources is important . . . The Prophet's (P) Marriages In Perspective. To put all of 911 world trade center this in a good thesis about, perspective - hopefully without undue apologetics - the first thing that one should be aware of is that c Ai sh ah was the third wife of the Prophet (P) , not the first. Prior to center essay this, the Prophet's (P) first and only wife for twenty-four years was Kh adijah bint al- Kh uwaylid, who was about nineteen years older than him. He married Kh adijah when she was forty and he was twenty-one - which might be called the years of a male's sexual prime - and myself, stayed married only to her until her death. Just after Kh adijah's death, when he was round forty-six years old, the Prophet (P) married his second wife Sawdah bint Zam'ah.
It was after this second marriage that the Prophet (P) became betrothed to c Ai sh ah, may God be pleased with her. Trade Center Essay. She was the daughter of Abû Bakr, one of the Prophet's closest friends and devoted followers. Abû Bakr, may God be pleased with him, was one of the earliest converts to Islam and hoped to on discovering myself solidify the deep love that existed between himself and the Prophet (P) by 911 world trade center, uniting their families in myself, marriage. Essay. The betrothal of Abu Bakr's daughter c Ai sh ah to Mu h ammad (P) , took place in the eleventh year of Mu h ammad's (P) Prophethood, which was about a year after he had married Sawdah bint Zam'ah and before he made his hijra (migration) to river essay al-Madinah (Ya th rib). As mentioned above, the marriage with c Ai sh ah bint Abû Bakr was consummated in Sh awwâl, which came seven months after the Prophet's hijra from Makkah to al-Medinah. 911 World Essay. At the time of his marriage to 2. joseph gibaldi mla handbook c Ai sh ah, the Prophet (P) was over fifty years old. It should be noted about the Prophet's (P) marriage to c Ai sh ah was an exceedingly happy one for center, both parties, as the gatsby essay american h adîth literature attests. c Ai sh ah, may God be please with her, was his favourite wife and the only virgin that he ever married. After emigrating to al-Madinah, Mu h ammad (P) married numerous other wives, eventually totaling fifteen in 911 world trade center, his lifetime. Even though we do not have time to go into the details of each one of them here, each of these marriages was done either for political reasons, to strengthen the ties of the great depression kinship or to 911 world trade help a woman in plan, need. Quite a few of the trade essay wives were widows, older women or had been abandoned thus were in need of a home. Additionally, it should be mentioned that the same collection of Muslim h adîth literature that tells us that c Ai sh ah was only nine years old at the time of the marriage tells us that the marriage was Divinely ordained:
Narrated c Ai sh ah, may God be pleased with her: The Messenger of bww business plan God (P) said (to me): You have been shown to 911 world me twice in (my) dreams. A man was carrying you in a silken cloth and said to bww business me, 'This is your wife.' I uncovered it; and behold, it was you. 911 World Trade Center Essay. I said to about the great myself, 'If this dream is from God, He will cause it to come true.' ( S a h î h al-Bu kh ârî , Volume 7, Book 62, Number 15 ) Thus like everything that the Prophet (P) did, there was wisdom behind it and lessons to be learned from it. The wisdom behind such incidents provides us guidance on the basis of human morality, exposes the double standards of misguided hypocrites from other religions that criticize Islam and much more. But more on that subject below. . . Criticism Addressed Entertained. Myself and many other Muslims should no longer be surprised by the double standard that Christians display when they criticize the conduct of Prophet Mu h ammad (P) , since we've heard it for so long. To have an atheist, agnostic - or anyone else who does not believe in a Divinely revealed basis for morality - criticize something that is politically incorrect by today's moral standards comes as no surprise. Such people will always find something to criticize, since they simply have a bone to pick with religion in general. All of trade this absolute morality talk gets in the way of 2. joseph mla handbook of research them having a good time, so they want to trade essay mock it, discredit it and do away with it. The criticism of Christians, however, is another matter.
While it is true that Christians speak out against the moral relativity which is spreading amongst the increasingly secular society today, they too are unconscious victims of it. The values of most Christians today come from the humanist values of Western Europe (or, at a minimum, are heavily influenced by them). On Discovering Myself Full Essay. Their values do not come straight out 911 world, of the Bible - in theory or in practice - regardless of what they may claim. That Christians today try to take credit for the so-called Freedom, Human Rights, Democracy and Women's Rights in Europe and America is nothing short of gatsby dream a joke. It may impress uneducated people in so-called Third World countries, but anyone who has studied history knows that these things came about in spite of the Church, not because of it. The way in essay, which many Christians uncritically mix non-Christian values with (allegedly) Biblical values has always fascinated me. One interesting example of this is how nationalism and mla handbook for writers papers, patriotism are supported amongst the majority of 911 world center Evangelical Protestant (and even other) Christians in the United States. In America, good Christians are flag wavers. Few, if any, of these fiercely patriotic minds ever seem to realize that narrow-minded patriotism is essay dream both selfish and non-universal at its core.
That patriotism and Christianity go hand-in-hand in the minds of trade center many people is thesis of criminal just an example of how we can be blindly sucked into trade moral relativism without even realizing it. According to 2. joseph gibaldi mla handbook for writers papers Judaism, Christianity and Islam, right and wrong are ordained by Almighty God. 911 World. As such, morality does not change over time based on river essay our whims, desires or cultural sensitivities. Essay. In cultures where there is no Divinely revealed ruling on gibaldi mla handbook for writers of research an issue, what is right and what is wrong is determined by cultural norms. In such cases, a person would only be considered immoral if they violated the accepted norms of their society. 911 World Trade Center. As we will demonstrate, the Prophet Mu h ammad's (P) marriage to c Ai sh ah, viewed both in the light of Absolute Morality and the cultural norms of his time, was not an a good statement about the great, immoral act, but was an act containing valuable lessons for center essay, generations to come. Additionally, this marriage followed the norms for 2. joseph gibaldi mla handbook for writers papers, all Semitic peoples, including those of Biblical times. Based on this, and other information that we will provide below, it is grossly hypocritical for Christians to criticise the Prophet's (P) marriage to 911 world trade center c Ai sh ah at such a young age. In case Christian readers are under the false impression that their values today are timeless and somehow reflect those of Biblical times, please consider the on discovering myself essay following points which are directly related to the question of at what age a person is properly ready to be married: Keeping in 911 world trade, mind the ideas of political correctness and river essay, absolute morality, in Biblical times the age at which a girl could marry was puberty. However, during the Middle Ages it was usually twelve years old.
Now in most Christian countries it is between fourteen and 911 world, sixteen years old. I live in a good thesis statement about depression, country where some states allow partners of the same sex to legally marry, but consider an eighteen year old boy who sleeps with a sixteen year old girl a statutory rapist. So even though Christians might disagree with much of what is becoming all too prevalent in trade essay, Western society today - whether it be drug abuse, gay marriages or abortion - they too have been swallowed up (possibly unknowingly) by the ugly monster of moral relativism Certainly, they might be giving in less quickly than people who have no Divine basis for their morality, but they're giving in nonetheless. Historically, the age at which a girl was considered ready to be married has been puberty . This was the case in bww business, Biblical times, as we will discuss below, and is still used to determine the age of marriage in what the culturally arrogant West calls primitive societies throughout the world. As the 911 world trade a h âdîth about c Ai sh ah's age show, her betrothal took place at least three years before the consummation of the river essay marriage.
The reason for this was that they were waiting for her to come of age (i.e. to have her first menstrual period). Puberty as a biological sign shows that a women is capable of bearing children. Trade Center. Can anyone logically deny this? Part of the wisdom behind the river essay Prophet's marriage to 911 world trade center essay c Ai sh ah just after she reached puberty is to firmly establish this as a point of Islamic Law, even though it was already cultural norm in all Semitic societies (including the one Jesus (P) grew up in). The large majority of Islamic jurists say that the earliest time a marriage can be consummated is on the onset sexual maturity ( bulugh ), meaning puberty. Since this was the norm of all Semitic cultures and it still is the norm of many cultures today: it is certainly not something that Islam invented. However, widespread opposition to such a Divinely revealed and accepted historical norm is bww business certainly something that is relatively new. The criticism of Mu h ammad's marriage to c Ai sh ah is something relatively new in that it grew up out of the values of Post Enlightenment Europe. This was a Europe that had abandoned (or at least modified) its religious morality for a new set of 911 world trade center essay humanist values where people used their own opinions to determine what was right and wrong. It is interesting to note that Christians from a very early time criticized (again hypocritically) the Prophet's (P) practice of polygamy, but not the marriage to c Ai sh ah. Certainly, those from a Middle Eastern Semitic background would not have found anything to criticize, since nothing abnormal or immoral took place.
It is american dream modern Westernized Christians who began to criticize Mu h ammad on this point, not earlier pre-Enlightenment ones. It is upon trade essay reaching the age of puberty that a person, man or woman, becomes legally responsible under Islamic Law. At this point, they are allowed to make their own decisions and thesis, are held accountable for their actions. It should also be mentioned that in Islam, it is trade essay unlawful to force someone to marry someone that they do not want to marry. The evidence shows that c Ai sh ah's marriage to the Prophet Mu h ammad (P) was one which both parties and their families agreed upon. Based on the culture at that time, no one saw anything wrong with it. On the contrary, they were all happy about it.
None of the Muslim sources report that anyone from the society at bww business, that time criticized this marriage due to c Ai sh ah's young age. On the contrary, the trade center marriage of c Ai sh ah to the Prophet (P) was encouraged by c Ai sh ah's father, Abu Bakr, and was welcomed by the community at large. It is reported that women who wanted to river essay help the Prophet (P) , such as Kh awlah bint al- H akîm, encouraged him to marry the trade young c Ai sh ah. Due to the Semitic culture in which they lived, they certainly saw nothing wrong with such a marriage. Society's ideas of love, family and marriage are much different in the so-called modern and civilized West of today than they were in river essay, Biblical or Qur'ânic times.
Unfortunately, many of 911 world us carry the baggage of romantic love and ideas about sex that have managed to poison our minds since the Europeans (and their ideas) came to dominate the globe. These ideas have not only mla handbook for writers of research, penetrated into the minds of 911 world center Muslims, but actually permeate many of them. The European colonial powers have pulled out of almost all Muslim lands, but the colonization of the minds continues! As we mentioned above, the thesis of criminal justice sad part is that most people do not even realize that they are under such un-Godly influences. Just to reference the way things have changed, a statement in The New Encyclopaedia Britannica makes it clear that values regarding the proper age of marriage have been changing over the years: . . . in the United States and parts of 911 world essay Europe the association of adult status with sexual maturity as expressed in the term puberty rites has been unwelcome . 2. The significance that sex and sexuality are thought to play in a good about the great, human psychology has its roots in Freudian thought. Even though many of Freud's ideas are being heavily challenged today, many of his ideas still play a role in the thinking of many people. Sigmund Freud (1856-1939) taught that humans are basically sexual beings whose childhood sexual urges are the key to understanding them.
He developed the methodology of psychoanalysis and his ideas on sex, repressed guilt and sexuality, the unconscious sex drive, the 911 world center Oedipus complex and other ideas have come to almost haunt the Western view of sexuality (almost as much as the repressive views of the mla handbook for writers of research papers Roman Catholic Church). Trade Center Essay. Needless to say, Freud's ideas have been criticized by believing Jews, Christians and Muslims since they basically deny human moral responsibility. In Freud's view of things, human beings are prisoners to the effects of unconscious forces and their sex drive. The Great Gatsby Essay American. Such ideas are always welcomed by liberals, humanists and others like them. The point of all this in regards to young marriage, however, might be less clear. What needs to be pointed out is the contradictory modern Western view of trade center essay sexuality. They are taken aback by the thought of marriage at the age of puberty, even though it's an the great essay, age old custom. However, they have junior high schools where sex education is taught and trade essay, a society where sexually promiscuous dating is considered the river essay norm.
Sometimes sex is simply a natural pleasure to be enjoyed, but at other times it is essay a psychological demon of far reaching consequences. In short, everything from their private lives to their court systems, have fallen victim to the moral relativity of the psychiatrists and psychologists. Mla Handbook Papers. The attitude that any experience in life can be seen as some sort of trauma is very widespread. Many people go through life constantly obsessed about what sort of complex they may be suffering from due to 911 world center experiences they've had in their relatively normal life. The morality which is bww business produced by 911 world center, such attitudes all but does away with human responsibility. People who are guilty of serious crimes, instead of being held responsible for their actions, are themselves considered victims, since they are only doing what their psychological makeup causes them to do. Puberty = Maturity = Marriage. These points having been presented, some additional details on a few of them is worthwhile.
An interesting article on the age at which people married in Biblical times is Ancient Israelite Marriage Customs , by Jim West, ThD - a Baptist minister. This article states that: The wife was to be taken from within the larger family circle (usually at the outset of puberty or around the age of 13) in order to maintain the purity of the family line; This is just one reference to the fact that the onset of puberty was considered the age at which young people could marry. That people in Biblical times married at river essay, an early age is widely endorsed. While discussing the meaning of the word 'almah , which is the Hebrew word for young woman or adolescent female , Gerald Segal says: It should be noted, however, that in biblical times females married at an early age . 3.
In spite of its somewhat arrogant Western talk of primitive cultures , An Overview of the World's Religions makes it clear that puberty is an age old symbol of center essay adulthood: Almost all primitive cultures pay attention to the great gatsby american dream puberty and trade center, marriage rituals, although there is a general tendency to pay more attention to the puberty rites of 2. joseph mla handbook of research males than of center essay females. Because puberty and marriage symbolize the on discovering fact that children are acquiring adult roles , most primitive cultures consider the rituals surrounding these events very important. Puberty rituals are often accompanied with ceremonial circumcision or some other operation on the male genitals. Female circumcision is less common, although it occurs in 911 world trade center, several cultures. Female puberty rites are more often related to the commencement of the menstrual cycle in young girls. Some female authors agree:
Puberty is defined as the age or period at a good statement about depression, which a person is first capable of sexual reproduction, in other eras of trade history, a rite or celebration of this landmark event was a part of the culture. ( Rites of Passage: Puberty , by Sue Curewitz Arthen) Getting your period marks a rite of passage for young girls entering womanhood. (From the Women's Resource Center ) Another contemporary reference relating marriage age to mla handbook papers puberty is an article on Central Africa, which says: There are many other references which should prove to any intelligent person what anthropologists and historians already know: in 911 world center, centuries past, people were considered ready for marriage when they reached puberty . It should be mentioned that from an plan, Islamic point of view, many problems in society today can be traced back to 911 world essay the abandonment of early marriage. Due to thesis statement the way that Almighty God has created man and 911 world center essay, woman, i.e., with strong sexual desires, people should marry young. In the thesis statement of criminal past, this was even more true since life expectancy was very low (i.e. you were considered old if you made it to 40!) Not only does marriage provide a legal outlet for people with strong sexual desires, but it usually produces more children. One of the main purposes of marriage is to produce children - be fruitful and multiply as the Bible says (Genesis 8:17). This was especially important in the past, when people did not live as long as they do now and the infant morality rate was much higher. The Age Of Puberty. Even though we have established that puberty has been the historical, cultural and religious norm for indicating readiness for marriage, some may wonder at which age puberty normally takes place. 911 World Center Essay. This is somewhat meaningless in regards to our specific discussion of Mu h ammad (P) and c Ai sh ah, since the hadith literature makes it clear that she had reached puberty. Thesis Justice. However, in regards to puberty and at what age most girls have their first menstrual cycle, c Abdul- H amîd S iddiqî says:
Islam has laid down no age limit for puberty for it varies with countries and 911 world trade essay, races due to the climate, hereditary, physical and social conditions. Those who live in cold regions attain puberty at a much later age as compared with those living in hot regions where both male and female attain it at plan, a quite early age. The average temperature of the country or province, say the well-known authors of the center book Woman , is thesis of criminal justice considered the chief factor here, not only with regard to menstruation but as regards the 911 world trade center essay whole of sexual development at puberty. 5. Raciborski, Jaubert, Routh and river essay, many others have collected and collated statistics on the subject to which readers are referred. Marie Espino has summarised some of these data as follows: (a) The limit of age for trade, the first appearance of statement menstruation is between nine and twenty-four in the temperate-zone; (b) The average age varies widely and it may be accepted as established that the nearer the Equator, the earlier the average age for menstruation. 6. Additionally, an article entitled Puberty in Girls by an Australian government Public Health organization, says: The first sign of puberty is usually a surge of growth: you become taller; your breasts develop; hair begins to grow in the pubic area and under the arms. This may start from 10 years to 14 years - even earlier for some and later for 911 world trade, others . During puberty, a girl's body changes, inside and out, into the body of statement about the great depression a woman . The changes don't come all at once, and they don't happen at the same time for trade center essay, everybody. Most girls start showing physical changes around age 11, but everyone has her own internal schedule for development.
It's normal for the great dream, changes to start as early as 8 or 9 years of 911 world age , or not until 13 or 14. Even if nothing looks or feels different yet, the changes may have already begun inside your body. Many will readily agree with the a good about the great depression information above, but still might harbour reservations about whether a marriage to an older man could be happy for such a young girl. Putting aside the modern Western notions of happiness for a moment, the marriage of c Ai sh ah and the Prophet (P) was a mutually happy and loving one as in expressed in 911 world center essay, numerous h adîth and seerah books. Statement Of Criminal Justice. That happy marriages occur between people with a fairly large difference in ages is 911 world trade center essay known among psychologists: When the differences (in ages) is great, e.g. exceeds fifteen to twenty years, the full results may be happier. Trade Center Essay. The marriage of an elderly (senescent) not, of course, an old (senile) man to a quite young girl, is often very successful and harmonious. A Good Thesis Statement About Depression. The bride is immediately introduced and accustomed to moderate sexual intercourse. 7. More Wisdom Behind It. In his comments on the ahadith in center essay, Sahîh Muslim which mention c Ai sh ah's young marriage to the Prophet (P) , c Abdul- H amîd S iddiqî shows three other reasons for dream, this marriage: c Ai sh ah's marriage to the Prophet Mu h ammad (P) at an early age allowed her to be an eyewitness to the personal details of 911 world essay his life and carry them on to the succeeding generations.
By being both spiritually and physically near to the Prophet (P) , the marriage prepared 'Ai sh ah to be an example to all Muslims, especially women, for all times. Plan. She developed into a spiritual teacher and scholar, since she was remarkably intelligent and 911 world trade essay, wise. Her qualities help support the Prophet's work and further the bww business plan cause of trade center essay Islam. Thesis Statement Of Criminal. c Ai sh ah, the Mother of the Believers, was not only a model for wives and mothers, but she was also a commentator on the Qur'ân, an authority on h adîth and trade center, knowledgeable in myself, Islamic Law. She narrated at center, least 2,210 a h âdîth that give Muslims valuable insights into the great essay the Final Prophet's daily life and behaviour, thus preserving the Sunnah of Mu h ammad (P) . At that time, this marriage refuted the notion that a man could not marry the daughter of a man who he had declared to 911 world trade essay be his brother (even in the religious sense). Statement. Since the Prophet (P) and Abu Bakr had declared each other to be brothers , this notion was done away with. 911 World Trade. This is demonstrated in the following h adîth: Narrated 'Ursa: The Prophet (P) asked Abu Bakr for c Ai sh ah's hand in marriage. Abu Bakr said, But I am your brother.
The Prophet (P) said, You are my brother in God's religion and His Book, but she ( c Ai sh ah) is lawful for me to marry. ( Sahîh al-Bukhârî, Volume 7, Book 62, Number 18 ) The marriage did away with the pagan Arab superstition that it was a bad omen to be married in the month of Sha wwal. The Great Gatsby Essay Dream. They thought that the month carried this omen since the word Sha wwal was derived from Sh aala, which carried a bad omen. The authentic ahadith indicate that the trade center essay Prophet (P) and c Ai sh ah were married in river essay, this lunar month. Not Much Ado Back Then. Above, we established the fact that getting married at 911 world, puberty was an accepted practice amongst not only the great gatsby american dream, today's primitive cultures , but specifically amongst the Semitic (i.e. Hebrew, Arab, Syriac, etc.) peoples of the Middle East. In order to essay provide additional proof that Mu h ammad's (P) marriage to c Ai sh ah did not raise any eyebrows at 2. joseph mla handbook, that time, I submit here quotations from two Western female scholars who have studied Islam in center essay, detail: It is not clear just when the marriage actually took place. Gatsby Essay American Dream. According to some versions, it was in the month of Shawwal of the Year 1, that is, some seven or eight months after the arrival at Medina; but, according to others, it was not until after the trade center essay Battle of Badr, that is, in Shawwal of the second year of the Hijrah . In no version is there any comment made on the disparity of the ages between Mohammed and Aishah or on the great gatsby american dream the tender age of the bride who, at 911 world trade, the most, could not have been over ten years old and thesis of criminal justice, who was still much enamoured with her play. 8.
In the above quotation, the sources which are given for the latter are Nawawi and Tabari . Both Imâms al-Nawâwî and al- T abarî were great Muslim scholars, but their works contain material that is less than authentic by Islamic standards, which is probably the reason over center, her questioning which date is authentic. This is all beside the point, since we've already shown that authentic Islamic sources state that c Ai sh ah, may God be pleased with her, was nine years old . The main point to note is that no version was any comment made on their age difference or on c Ai sh ah's young age. Why? Such an early marriage was normal in river essay, all Semitic societies - such as the ones that Abraham (P) , Moses (P) , Jesus (P) and Mu h ammad (P) grew up in! Another author, Karen Armstrong, has this to add: Tabari says that she was so young that she stayed in her parents' home and the marriage was consummated there later when she had reached puberty . 9. This further establishes that the marriage took place at puberty and 911 world, that, as such, no eyebrows were raised.
Tabari , it should be mentioned, refers to river essay Abû Ja c far Mu h ammad ibn Jarîr al- T abarî (225-310 AH / 839-923 CE), who was a great Muslim scholar who is well known in the West for his Qur'ânic commentary and history of the 911 world essay world. It is no surprise that both of the above authors agree on the fact that the marriage of c Ai sh ah and Mu h ammad (P) took place when the former had reached puberty and that this was normal at the time. This is no surprise, since anyone who studies the statement justice Muslim sources and center, Semitic culture would be forced to come to the same conclusion, since it is simply a historical fact. River Essay. It should be pointed out 911 world trade essay, that both of the thesis of criminal justice above quoted female authors do not hesitate to trade misrepresent Islam (intentionally or unintentionally) in their other writings. Myself Full. Suffice it to say that if there was some other damaging information available, they would not hesitate to bring it to light. Nabia Abbott, who has done some useful research on Islam in some areas, was basically an Orientalist in the classic sense.
Her book which was quoted above, Aishah-The Beloved of Mohammed , is actually nothing but a disgusting second-guessing of c Ai sh ah's life. Trade. If a book with a similar mix of speculation and inauthentic sources were written about someone of significance in the West, it certainly would not be sitting on scholarly bookshelves. It has long been established that Orientalists with a bone to pick with Islam liked to decide on the authenticity of a story based on their preconceived notions. If an inauthentic story seemed to belittle the Prophet of Islam, it became oft quoted. However, any authentic material that contradicted their theories was simply ignored. It's analogous to writing a historical biography of Jesus (P) and using quotations from apocryphal gospels to override the Canonical ones whenever whimsically deemed appropriate. This is how Orientalists and Christian missionaries have been treating Mu h ammad (P) for statement of criminal, centuries. For those who want to know more about this, please read our article Orientalism, Misinformation and Islam . So What's The Verdict? Overcoming cultural bias or admitting your own double standards is not always easy. For some people, it takes years for 911 world center essay, them to admit that they've been hypocritical.
Hopefully, the thesis justice thoughts presented here will plant the 911 world trade seed of reflection in some people so that they may reflect on the truth. Admitting that there's a problem is often half the battle, so before the a good thesis about reader heads off to make a final personal judgment on where they stand on this issue, I want to provide some more food for thought. Montgomery Watt, a long time scholar of Islam, had some choice words on 911 world trade center essay how the on discovering essay West should judge Mu h ammad (P) . 911 World Trade Center Essay. I have never agreed with many of Watt's conclusions about Islam, but I have always viewed him as one of the more open-minded and mla handbook of research papers, open-hearted Orientalist scholars. Possibly, this is because he was more of a promoter of trade center essay understanding than a narrow-minded Christian missionary. Years of studying Islam brought Watt to this conclusion: The other main allegations of moral defect in Muhammad are that he was treacherous and lustful . Bww Business. . . Trade Essay. Sufficient has been said above about the interpretation of these events to show that the case against river essay Muhammad is much weaker than is sometimes thought.
The discussions of center these allegations, however, raises a fundamental question. How are we to judge Muhammad? By the standards of his own time and bww business plan, country? Or by trade, those of the most enlightened opinion in the West today? When the sources are closely scrutinized, it is bww business plan clear that those of Muhammad's actions which are disapproved by 911 world center, the modern West were not the object of the moral criticism of 2. joseph his contemporaries . They criticized some of his acts, but their motives were superstitious prejudice or fear of the consequences. Center Essay. If they criticized the thesis of criminal events at Nakhlah, it was because they feared some punishment from the offended pagan gods or the worldly vengeance of the Meccans.
If they were amazed at trade, the mass execution of the Jews of the clan of Qurayzah, it was at the number and river essay, danger of the blood-feuds incurred. The marriage with Zaynab seemed incestuous, but this conception of incest was bound up with old practices belonging to a lower, communalistic level of familial institutions where a child's paternity was not definitely known; and this lower level was in process being eliminated by Islam . . . From the standpoint of 911 world trade essay Muhammad's time, then, the allegations of treachery and 2. joseph gibaldi mla handbook, sensuality cannot be maintained. His contemporaries did not find him morally defective in any way. On the contrary, some of the acts criticized by the modern Westerner show that Muhammad's standards were higher than those of his time. In his day and generation he was a social reformer, even a reformer in essay, the sphere of morals. Thesis Statement. He created a new system of social security and a new family structure, both of which were a vast improvement on what went before. By taking what was best in the morality of the center essay nomad and adapting it for settled communities, he established a religious and social framework for on discovering myself, the life of many races of men. That is not the work of a traitor or 'an old lecher'. 10. From Abraham (P) To Pick-And-Choose / Feel Good Religion
Everything that we have discussed above logically frees Mu h ammad (P) from the 911 world trade unjust criticism that he has received (at least amongst those who can be intellectually honest and fair-minded). One point, however, still needs to river essay be made a bit more clear. Even though we've mentioned it in passing, the hypocrisy and 911 world center essay, double standards of Christians who criticize Mu h ammad (P) for his morality needs to be more thoroughly analysed and exposed. Before moving on to an analysis of Biblical morality, I would like to offer some advice and encouraging words to my fellow Muslims. My main piece of advice is to thesis the great not be discouraged by slanderous attacks on Islam or how it is distorted in 911 world trade center, the media. River Essay. Certainly, we all hate to see such things occur, but in the Information Age which was brought about by trade essay, a culture that (allegedly) places a supreme value on mla handbook freedom of speech, there is not much that we can do to stop it. The flip side to this coin is the fact that the Truth of Islam is still out there and people are finding it.
Yes, Islam is spreading in spite of these hypocritical methods that Christians and others are using to stop it. From the moon god lies of trade center Robert Morey to the almost daily distortions in the media, Islam is still spreading in the West. Actually, the fact that those who make a career out of plan attacking Islam, such as Christian missionaries, have to resort to lies and distortions when they discuss Islam, is a good sign. Certainly, if they discussed Islam as it was meant to be understood, they would only be hurting their own cause. When Islam is presented by non-Muslims in the West, usually matters of center essay peripheral importance are addressed and river essay, criticised.
The core beliefs of Islam, if discussed at all, are presented in a distorted manner. Trade Center. If Islam was just some ridiculous Third World religion with no appeal, they would not have to treat it this way. As a matter of on discovering myself essay fact, a great deal of the 911 world trade anti-Islamic literature that fills Christian bookstores (and the Internet) is not designed to convert Muslims, but to turn Westerners off to 2. joseph gibaldi for writers Islam. The people who write these lies are just trying to poison the minds of people so that they won't be receptive to trade the message of Islam when they hear it. Their methods, however, are failing. In Europe especially, the Christian religion is in river essay, a severe state of stagnation and 911 world trade center, people are looking for essay american, truth elsewhere. Christians have always been embarrassed by their almost complete inability to convert a notable Muslim to Christianity.
Certainly, they have their converts that they hold up as examples, however all of them seem to have been only nominal Muslims (at best) when they converted. However, many notable Westerners have embraced Islam, recently as well as in the past. One of the most interesting things about this is many (if not all) of center essay these people could be called Searchers for the Truth. By this I mean that they were the gatsby american type of people who were spiritual, open-mined and center essay, read books on many subjects. They were not brainwashed simpletons who simply wanted to join an easy religion and river essay, the dominating culture of the time.
They were people who knew a lot not only essay, about religion, but about history, philosophy and other disciplines. River Essay. Suffice it to say that the truth of Islam is 911 world trade center essay out there, in spite of all the negative press that it gets today. The following is just one testimony that Islam is papers spreading in the West: Unprecedented numbers of British people, nearly all of them women, are converting to Islam at a time of deep divisions within the Anglican and trade, Catholic churches. The rate of conversions has prompted predictions that Islam will rapidly become an on discovering myself full essay, important religious force in this country . . . Within the next 20 years the number of British converts will equal or overtake the immigrant Muslim community that brought the 911 world trade center essay faith here, says Rose Kendrick, a religious education teacher at thesis statement the great depression, a Hull comprehensive and the author of a textbook guide to the Koran. She says: Islam is as much a world faith as is Roman Catholicism. No one nationality claims it as its own.
Islam is also spreading fast on the continent and in America. ( The Times , London, Tuesday, November 9th, 1993, Home-News page) Thanks be to God that many of us who are former pew warmers finally decided to go out and investigate what they try to spoon feed us from the pulpit and TV. Why does Islam succeed in attracting Christians and others? Because it's the 911 world trade center Clear Way of Abraham . No other religion today can honestly claim this! Islam isn't just a feel good religion where they just tell you what you want to gibaldi of research papers hear and read selected verses from the trade essay Bible. Most Christians today approach religion like they do Sunday brunch: they take what they like and leave what they don't like. They have this attitude in spite of the fact that Abraham is held up in their Bible as a towering example of full faith. 911 World Trade. Abraham (P) , who was going to sacrifice his own son because Almighty God commanded it, certainly knew the basis of morality.
It is clear in both the Bible and the Qur'ân that Abraham knew that whatever God commands is the right thing to do. However, how many Christians today can say that they honestly believe that on all issues? How many of them have reflected on the moral ramifications of what is contained in their Bible? Seemingly, not even their learned apologists who attack Islam have reflected on it too deeply! The question What is essay our basis for morality? is an easy one for those who follow the faith of Abraham (P) - and that's what Islam is. Islam is submission to the Will of Almighty God - We hear and we obey - the center essay faith of our father Abraham. If it was good enough for Abraham (P) , Moses (P) , Jesus (P) and Mu h ammad (P) , then it's good enough for on discovering myself full essay, me! It is this truth and this attitude that attracts people to Islam.
The entire basis of Islam, which produces this attitude, is Unity - the 911 world trade essay Unity of Almighty God and the unity of mankind. To be sure, the message of Islam appeals to the very nature of man. No wonder it is river essay spreading! A Christian theologian, relatively recently, observed: It is probable that early in the twenty-first century Islam will have become numerically the essay largest of the world religions. 11. Quite possibly, if you count only Sunni Muslims (which are at least 85% of Muslims), we are already the largest religion in the world when compared not to Christians as a whole, but to either the Orthodox, Roman Catholics or Protestants each separately. A Case Study In Biblical Morality.
Now that we've taken a detailed look at an alleged moral difficulty in the life of Mu h ammad (P) , for for writers, the sake of balance, let's take a look at a moral difficulty in the Bible. 911 World Center Essay. We've already made statements above concerning the on discovering myself full nature of Biblical morality, but many readers may be unaware of some of its difficulties . For better or for worse, in 911 world trade essay, Sunday school they generally skip the verses which we are going to deal with below. However, these verses certainly are useful tools in bww business, putting intellectually honest Christians in the same moral dilemna that they think Muslims should be in due to Mu h ammad's (P) young marriage to c Ai sh ah, may God be pleased with her. It should be kept in trade, mind that the purpose of bww business this discussion is the trade essay basis for morality, not the inspiration of the Bible (or lack thereof). For the purposes of this discussion, we accept the Bible as is statement . However, this should not be interpreted to mean that we are endorsing it as the Word of God in toto . 911 World Trade Center. On the depression other hand, it should not be interpreted to mean that we are attacking the Word of God, since we are discussing it simply because Christians consider it to be the Word of 911 world center essay God (whatever their particular definition might be). For those wanting more detailed information on the Muslim view of the Bible, please click here . The portion of the Bible that we want to look at begins with the Book of Numbers, Chapter 31, verses 17 and 18. Here, Moses (P) , following the Lord's command , orders the plan Israelites to kill all the Midianite male children. The order continues with the 911 world trade center following: . . . kill every woman who has known man by lying with him, but all the female children , that have not known a man by lying with him, keep alive for yourselves . One can only guess how the Israelites determined who the virgins were. Most probably, they did it based on age and maturity, assuming that all of the female children who had not reached puberty were virgins. Keep in mind that this was done, according to the Bible, on God's command to Avenge the Israelites on the Midianites . Later, God gives Moses (P) instructions on how to divide up the booty, whether persons , oxen, donkeys, sheeps or goats . Based on this command, thirty-two thousand persons in all, women who had not known a man by on discovering essay, lying with him were divided up. This was done so that the Israelite soldiers could have these young girls for themselves . I do not suspect that anyone reading this is either so naive or ignorant of King James English to not know what this means!
Moving along to another great example of trade center Biblical morality, . River Essay. . . in Deuteronomy 21:10-14 the Biblical God of Love gives the following command: When thou goest forth to war against thine enemies, and the Lord thy God hath delivered them into thine hands and thoust has taken them captive, and seest among the trade center essay captives a beautiful woman , and had a desire unto her , that though would have her to thy wife, then though shalt bring her home to thine house . . . and after that you may go into her and be her husband, and she shall be your wife. But if though have no delight in her, then thou shalt let her go. This should serve as sufficient proof that the morality that is taught in the Bible often is not what Christians make it out to be. In spite of what they teach in Sunday school, the above mentioned verses demonstrate the following: * Almighty God, at least according to plan the Bible, ordered innocent babies to be killed; and. * He allowed young women to be forced into sex against 911 world essay their will.
Before moving on, it should be noted that killing women and children in war is never permitted under Islamic Law (the actions of some ignorant Muslims around the world notwithstanding). Some Christians may take issue with the words innocent babies above, since they believe that even babies are tainted with Original Sin. 2. Joseph For Writers Of Research Papers. However, this is not the 911 world topic of the discussion at gatsby american dream, hand. Suffice it to say that Biblical support for the Doctrine of trade center essay Original Sin is contradictory at best. There are some verses that seem to support it, but there are others that seem to clearly deny it. One strike against Original Sin, besides the fact that it's simply unjust, is the fact that the mla handbook for writers Jews - who read the trade center Old Testament - never believed in it the way Christians do. But anyway . . . when faced with the problematic parts of the Old Testament, Christians react in various ways. Bww Business. Many offer up the ill thought out Well-That's-in-the-Old-Testament defense.
In spite of the fact that they usually don't brush the Old Testament aside so quickly when they are being shown alleged prophecies which match Jesus (P) , a few other thoughts can be presented. Some of the trade center things that make brushing aside the a good statement the great Old Testament a bit more difficult (at least for Christians who want to remain intellectually honest) are: 1) the 911 world trade same God that inspired the Old Testament inspired the New Testament; 2) this same God is thesis justice unchanging according to the Bible; 3) Jesus (P) in the New Testament endorses the Law and the prophets (i.e. the Old Testament) in several places; and.
4) without the trade essay Old Testament there is no basis for Christianity. When put in this predicament, Christians have one of two choices: 1) Stop thinking about it and statement the great, fall back on a liberal pick-and-choose religion that just makes them feel good but does not answer any of life's more difficult questions; or. 2) Accept the Divinely Revealed morality of the Bible as is . There are Christians out there who claim to accept the 911 world Divinely Revealed morality of the Bible. They understand what's at stake and river essay, the issues at hand. If people are allowed to whimsically decide what is 911 world trade right and what is wrong, there would be chaos. Just as importantly, if people decide what is God's Word and what is not His word based on thesis about the great depression their preconceived notions and trade center essay, modern sensibilities, nothing would be left of the essay Bible. As such, there are Christians who, in principle, say that killing babies is moral as long as God clearly commands it. For someone who understands the nature of Divinely Revealed morality, we would have to agree in principle but with certain reservations.
As mentioned above, Almighty God - according to Islam - never commands the killing of innocent children. That is one difficulty that I am glad that Muslims don't have to explain their way out of! Killing babies is okay as long as God commands it. So much for having Christians as baby-sitters! The bottom line is essay that morality comes from thesis statement of criminal justice Almighty God and from Him alone. However, if ones studies the trade center essay Bible, it is plain to see that it is not a foundation for morality. The examples above are just a few that can be provided from both the myself essay Old and the New Testament.
The people who promote Biblical morality pick and choose from the text as they please. Only in Islam can one with good conscience accept the whole package without ignorantly or hypocritically denying things that they don't like. This is how true internal peace and balance are achieved. 911 World Center. If one belongs to a religion without accepting everything in its scripture (real or alleged) one is not only bearing false witness against oneself but against God Himself. With all the false ideas in the modern age, it's easy to the great gatsby essay american be lead astray.
The liberal Western morality that has now touched all corners of the globe is, culturally speaking, something like an eight-hundred pound gorilla. It's very hard to stand in its way or speak out against it. However, being encouraged by others to follow vain desires has been an eternal problem for mankind, as Almighty God makes clear in the Qur'ân: Say: 'I will not follow your vain desires: if I did I would stray from the path and be not of the company of those who receive guidance.' Guideposts To Be Thankful For. The Prophet Mu h ammad (P) was a great example for all of humanity and peoples of different cultures (from modern Europeans to essay the aborigines of Australia). Not only was he a great Prophet and Messenger, but he was also a statesman, military leader, ruler, teacher, neighbor and friend.
Family life was one of the most important areas where he was a great example, since he was both a husband and the great american dream, a father. Due to God's wisdom, His last and final prophet experienced a wide array of trade center essay marriages and family situations. Due to this, he is an example for people who are monogamous, for those who are polygamous, for those wishing to justice marry those older than themselves and for those wondering how early someone can rightfully marry. Mu h ammad (P) reestablished the Religion of Abraham (P) so that it would continue to the Last Day. As Muslims, we should be thankful for these guideposts in our moral journey through life. Reflecting on 911 world trade essay them aids us in avoiding being led astray into river essay moral relativism . This is a very dangerous thing, since it can lead to the worst of all sins - associating others with Almighty God in worship, belief and/or Lordship. By knowing the Prophet's (P) life we can see how to stay within the boundaries laid by Almighty God and stay on the Natural Religion of Islam which was made to suit the natural disposition ( fitrah ) of mankind. 911 World Center Essay. I pray that we, as Muslims, make Almighty God's limits our limits, and that we are not influenced by other societies and cultures. If it was good enough for Abraham (P) and Moses (P) , then it's good enough for me . . A Good Thesis The Great. . That's the way I see it, but God knows best . . . 4 Central Africa , The New Encyclopaedia Britannica , 15th Edition (1987), Volume 15, page 646. Center Essay. See also Aboriginal Australia , The New Encyclopaedia Britannica , 15th Edition (1987), Volume 14, page 425. For additional references to the marriage customs in Biblical times, see Israel: Its Life and Culture , by Johannes Pedersen, Volume 1, page 60ff.
5 Herman H. Ploss, Max Bartels and Paul Bartels, Woman , Volume I, Lord Bransby, 1988, page 563. 6 English-translation of the great Sahih Muslim , Volume 2, International Islamic Publishing House, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia, page 715.
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You’ll probably want to start writing your essay right away, but creating an outline is an effective strategy if you want to end up with a high score. Take the time to think about full essay your perspective on essay, the issue and make sure you have plenty of evidence to support it. Try to leave yourself with a few minutes at the end of the writing test so you can proofread and make small changes if necessary. The instructors at Veritas Prep have the skills and knowledge to prepare you for bww business plan, the Writing section on the ACT along with the trade center essay, rest of the exam. We are familiar with the different types of ACT essay prompts and can guide you on the best approaches to them.
Our strategies can help you to create an essay that fulfills all of the requirements necessary to achieve the highest score possible. We offer online courses that are convenient for high school students on the go, and we also have in-person ACT prep courses if you prefer that type of learning environment. Look at river essay, our FAQ page to 911 world trade center essay, find more information about our tutoring services, or give us a call or email to let us know how we can help you conquer the ACT essay! Deciding Between the SAT and ACT: Which Test is Right for You? Choosing the right standardized test for mla handbook for writers of research papers, you can make an enormous difference to your college application experience: working with subjects you’re more comfortable with and being tested on a skill set that better matches your own strengths, can greatly ease your study burden and boost your chances of a strong score. The SAT and ACT are structurally and functionally similar, but their content differs in significant ways that can be used to 911 world trade essay, a student’s advantage. Here are a few things to consider when choosing between the ACT and the SAT: Similarities Between the SAT and ACT. Let#8217;s start with what these two tests have in common.
They take about the same amount of time to complete, and are equally popular test choices in the United States. They require both qualitative and quantitative skills, and each have four sections plus an optional essay. Colleges weigh the ACT sand SAT equally you won#8217;t be penalized for choosing either exam over the other, so many students choose to take both and submit whichever test they perform better on. All U.S. colleges accept scores from both tests. Differences Between the SAT and essay american ACT. The main difference between the SAT and the ACT is their content choose the exam that tests your strongest skills. The SAT is more qualitatively oriented in that it has Reading, Writing, and Math sections, while the ACT is more quantitatively oriented in that it has English, Math, and Science sections.
ACT English passages tend to center essay, be at an easier reading level than SAT Reading passages, but ACT Math typically contains more trigonometry questions than SAT Math. The ACT also includes a science section, although ACT Science questions focus on a student#8217;s ability to comprehend and evaluate given scientific information and hypotheses, rather than on his or her outside knowledge of scientific concepts. You won#8217;t need to remember everything you learned in Biology, Chemistry, or Physics class for this exam, but you will need to know how to understand those concepts when they are explained to you using common scientific vocabulary words. About The Great Depression! Both tests include an optional essay, but these take very different forms. The ACT essay asks you to evaluate and analyze a complex issue. You are given three perspectives on a worldly, relevant question like the 911 world, implications of automation for history and asked to 2. joseph, discuss your own perspective on the issue relative to at least one of the given perspectives. The ACT essay favors those with strong logic, debate, and discussion skills. Test-takers are also asked to use reasoning and outside examples to support their arguments, so a strong knowledge of history, literature, and/or current events can come in handy. The SAT essay, on trade center, the other hand, tests comprehension of a source text, and is a good choice for those with strong reading comprehension, interpretation, and critical analysis skills. Test-takers are given a passage to read and asked to examine the river essay, author’s use of evidence, reasoning, and stylistic or persuasive elements. Strong SAT essays typically include references to and explanations of literary concepts like allusion, rhetorical language, and 911 world center anecdote, so a strong knowledge of English literary components and mla handbook of research papers concepts is also useful.
How to center, Decide Whether to Take the SAT or ACT. The best way to determine which test is better for statement, you is to take at least one official ACT practice test, and at least one official SAT practice test. (I#8217;ll emphasize official you want to ensure that your practice session is 911 world essay as representative of the real thing as possible, and a copycat practice test won#8217;t achieve that.) If you still can#8217;t decide between the gibaldi for writers of research papers, two exams, or if you take one and realize you might have done better on trade, the other, recognize that there#8217;s no penalty if you officially sit both the SAT and the ACT. The SAT and ACT are operated by different organizations, so reporting your SAT scores to colleges won#8217;t automatically send your ACT scores to river essay, them too, and vice versa. If you take both tests, you can choose to report scores for 911 world trade center essay, just one exam whichever one you do better on. (Keep in mind, though, that some colleges require you to submit all scores you#8217;ve received from each test, so if you#8217;ve officially sat three SAT#8217;s, you#8217;ll have to report all three scores, not just your best one.) It’s best to devote your energy to just one test out of the two, but ultimately, you can#8217;t really go wrong when choosing between the SAT and the great essay american the ACT. Apart from the test fees and studying time spent, there is no cost to taking both exams. Play to center, your strengths by river essay choosing the test with content that better fits your skills, but don#8217;t worry about choosing wrong you can always change your mind later on!
The best option is to start your test prep early in your high school career, in order to give yourself time to explore both tests and to switch to 911 world trade essay, the other one if you need to. Mla Handbook Of Research Papers! Still need help deciding whether to take the SAT or ACT (or both)? Check out 911 world essay Veritas Prep#8217;s free SAT vs. Myself Full Essay! ACT Comparison Tool to determine which exam is right for you. Center Essay! And as always, be sure to find us on Facebook , YouTube , Google+ and Twitter ! By Courtney Tran, a Veritas Prep college admissions consultant and 99th percentile SAT and ACT instructor. A Good Thesis Depression! Courtney Tran is a student at UC Berkeley , studying Political Economy and Rhetoric. In high school, she was named a National Merit Finalist and National AP Scholar, and she represented her district two years in a row in Public Forum Debate at the National Forensics League National Tournament. The Pros and Cons of Skipping the ACT Essay-Writing Section. Center! As you read about the different sections on the ACT, you’ll notice that the thesis, essay (or Writing section) is optional.
So should you do the ACT Writing section or opt out of it? The best way to answer this question is to check out both the pros and cons of signing up for the ACT without the essay: One of the advantages of signing up for 911 world essay, the ACT without the essay is you can reduce the amount of time you spend preparing for plan, the exam. Essay! Preparation for gibaldi of research, the ACT Writing section means learning the scoring rubric to find out the elements necessary to achieve a high score. Also, you must spend time practicing your essay-writing skills to trade essay, ensure that you’re ready to create an impressive essay. Skipping the ACT essay means you have more study time to dedicate to the other sections on the test.
Plus, taking the ACT without writing time means your total testing period is shortened by 40 minutes. The official website for the ACT displays one fee for taking the river essay, test with the Writing section and another for 911 world trade, taking the of research papers, ACT without the essay, so if you decide to skip the 911 world center essay, essay, you can save a little money on your testing fees. This can be important, especially if you have a tight budget for standardized tests taken in your junior and senior year in high school. Sticking With Your Strengths. Perhaps essay-writing is not one of your strengths when you take the ACT without the Writing section, time can be spent studying for river essay, the other sections of the test. You can focus on the Math, Reading, Science, and English sections to achieve scores that will impress college admissions officials. However, if you want to improve your essay-writing skills, our capable instructors can help you to achieve that goal.
We can teach you strategies for trade center essay, how to set up a logical, well-organized essay and provide you with guided practice to help make your essay the best it can be. One of the cons of taking the ACT without the essay is that you may want to apply to colleges that list a score for the Writing section as an admissions requirement. In order to apply to those colleges, you would have to go back and take the entire test again to get an essay score. Checking to see if the ACT essay is a requirement for the colleges you plan to apply to is a wise idea. But keep in mind that you may want to add a college to your list later or even transfer to another school that requires an ACT essay score. Skipping the Opportunity to Make an Impression. Another con of skipping the essay section on the ACT is that you’ll miss out on an opportunity to show off your writing skills. Earning a high score on the essay is sure to capture the mla handbook for writers of research papers, attention of college admissions officials. If writing is one of your strengths, why not take the time to highlight that talent to colleges? Missing Out on an Intro to College-Level Work. If you skip the ACT essay, you miss out on the chance to become familiar with college-level work.
The task of writing this essay is similar to what you’ll be doing in 911 world trade, your English classes as a college freshman. You’ll be writing a lot of papers for classes once you start working toward a degree, so why not give yourself the bww business, opportunity to dip your toe into 911 world center, the type of full essay, academic work you’ll be doing as a college student? Whether you decide to take the ACT with or without the essay, we are here to help you prep for the test. You may want to start by trying a free ACT trial class taught by 911 world one of our professional, 99th percentile instructors. This will give you an idea of all that we have to offer you at Veritas Prep. Sign up for our test prep services and you have the myself essay, choice of online tutoring, in-person courses, or On Demand instruction. 911 World Trade Center Essay! At Veritas Prep, we make it easy for you to learn what you need to know to ace the gibaldi mla handbook papers, ACT! The New SAT vs. the ACT: A Simple Test Comparison. “Are ‘SAT’ and ‘ACT’ the same thing?” If you’ve been thinking about this question, you’re not alone. 911 World Center! Many high school students are curious about the similarities between these two tests and how different they really are. A quick SAT-to-ACT comparison can help you to river essay, decide whether to take the new SAT , the ACT, or both. 911 World Trade Center! The scoring scales for the ACT versus new SAT are very different.
The highest score you can earn on the ACT is a 36. There are four sections on the ACT, and statement of criminal you receive a raw score for each section, which is changed into a scaled score ranging from one to 36. 911 World Trade! Your final score is the thesis statement, average of your four scaled scores. On the other hand, the highest score you can achieve on the new SAT is 1600. You receive a subscore for each section of the new SAT, and 911 world center your final score is the sum of your subscores. When making an SAT-to-ACT comparison, you’ll find that both tests include questions on american dream, advanced math concepts such as geometry and trigonometry as well as algebra. Of course, knowledge of center essay, arithmetic is thesis statement about depression necessary on both tests. One difference between the two Math sections is that you’re given 60 minutes to complete 60 questions on 911 world center, the ACT and 80 minutes to complete 58 questions on the new SAT. You’re also allowed to use a calculator throughout the Math section on the ACT, but your calculator use is the great gatsby essay limited on the new SAT.
One major difference in the new SAT versus ACT test is that there’s no specific Science section on the new SAT. Trade Essay! However, some of the skills you use in science class are tested in other sections on the new SAT. For instance, in the Math section you’re often asked to analyze the information given on a chart or graph, and the Reading section contains passages that cover science-related topics. The ACT does have a section of Science questions earth science, chemistry, and biology are among the sciences found on the ACT. You must answer a total of 40 questions in 35 minutes in the Science section of the ACT. When making an gibaldi for writers, SAT-vs.-ACT comparison, you’ll see that the Reading sections on both tests share a lot of similarities.
The Reading sections on both exams feature several passages accompanied by questions. The SAT has five passages, while the 911 world trade, ACT has four. In addition, the two tests share many of the same question types. For instance, they both have main idea , detail, vocabulary-in-context, and inference questions. In addition to those, the new SAT has data reasoning, technique, and evidence support questions.
You’re given 35 minutes to finish 40 questions on the ACT and 2. joseph of research 65 minutes to trade center, finish 52 questions on the new SAT Reading section. Writing and myself full essay English Tests. There is a Writing Language section on 911 world center essay, the new SAT that requires you to improve on phrases found within the given passages. There may be grammar or punctuation errors in the passage or problems with sentence structure. You’ll read the passage and select the better options for thesis about the great depression, the underlined phrases. The ACT has an 911 world trade, English section with passages that also contain underlined phrases. Your task is to find a better alternative to on discovering essay, the phrase or, in some cases, select the “no change” option. Once again, there may be grammar errors or problems with punctuation, sentence structure, or organization. You are given 45 minutes to finish 75 questions in the English section on the ACT and 35 minutes to complete 44 Writing Language questions on the new SAT. When it comes to the essay on the ACT vs. 911 World Trade! new SAT, both tests make this section optional. For the statement justice, new SAT Essay section, you’re required to analyze an argument and offer evidence as to why the 911 world trade center, author’s argument is valid or invalid.
Alternatively, the ACT Essay section presents you with three different perspectives on a particular issue, and essay your job is to evaluate each of them. On both essays, your score depends on your ability to organize your thoughts, present evidence, and convey your ideas in a clear way. Are “SAT” and “ACT” the same? In some ways, the answer is “yes,” but in many others, the answer is “no.” Regardless of which test you take, our professional instructors can help you practice for it. Look at our video tutorials and sign up for our in-person or online test prep courses today! Want to learn more about how the SAT and ACT differ? Attend one of our upcoming free live online SAT vs.
ACT workshops to determine which exam is right for you. And be sure to trade, find us on Facebook , YouTube , Google+ and Twitter ! ACT Registration Checklist and Testing Dates. Completing the ACT registration process is the first step toward sitting down to take the test. Having a checklist of things to do can help you to organize the process. Learn about the steps you need to take, as well as some important things to consider, before you sit down to register for essay, the ACT. Create a Student Account Online. ACT registration can be accomplished very easily by visiting their official website, ACT.org. After creating an account, it takes about 40 minutes to complete the registration forms. There is a test fee that you can pay with a credit card via a secure payment system.
Also, you must upload a photo of yourself during ACT test registration. This photo is used for essay, identification purposes and will be put onto the ticket that you’ll take with you to the testing center. Special Accommodations for the Test. If you have a disability, it’s possible to get special accommodations for the ACT. For instance, if you’re visually impaired, you may be able to arrange for a magnifying device or a reader. During the gibaldi of research papers, registration process, you have the chance to express the need for special accommodations. After registration is complete, you will receive an email explaining how to request testing accommodations. You must then work with the officials at your school to secure accommodations for the ACT. You will have to submit proof of a disability along with other documentation. Your school must submit the actual request for accommodations to ACT testing officials. The writing test on the ACT is optional.
During registration, you can specify whether you want to take it. If you change your mind later about taking the writing test , you can log onto the website and make this adjustment. Keep in mind that you must make the change before the late registration deadline connected with your test date. There is an additional fee for the writing test. 911 World! Choose a Test Date and bww business Location. Essay! You’ll have the opportunity to choose a test date as well as a testing center located near you. On the website, there is a chart that displays upcoming test dates as well as corresponding ACT registration dates. Full Essay! The ACT registration dates are the trade essay, deadlines for anyone who wants to bww business, take the test on a particular day. It’s possible to register for the test after the deadline passes, but the ACT charges a late fee for that service. The test center locator on the website makes it simple for you to find a location that is convenient. Your test date and location will be confirmed after you finish the ACT test registration process.
Arranging for the Delivery of Score Reports. As part of center essay, your testing fee, the ACT sends your score report to four colleges. You can specify these colleges during test registration. You have the option of sending your score report to more than four colleges, but there is a fee for each additional request. After going through the process of ACT registration, your next step is to prep for the test! That’s where we can help. At Veritas Prep, our talented instructors can provide you with tools that enable you to highlight your skills on the ACT. We’ll guide you through taking a practice ACT to reveal both your strengths and river essay weaknesses when it comes to the material on this test.
In addition, we’ll pair you with an instructor who knows how to convey lessons with your learning style in mind. 911 World Trade Essay! We’ll help you improve your test performance by giving you strategies to use on every section of the ACT. When you sign up with Veritas Prep, you get to study with an instructor who scored in the 99th percentile on the test, so the study tips you receive are coming from someone who has taken and conquered the ACT! Our team is proud to provide quality ACT tutoring both online and in person. We use proven study resources in our classes so you know you’re getting practical information you can use on 2. joseph gibaldi for writers, the test. If you’re looking for the best in ACT prep, send us an email or give us a call today. Let Veritas Prep play a part in your victory on the ACT!
What#8217;s Going on With the ACT Essay: A Synopsis of Recent Issues with ACT Essay Scoring. In September of 2015, changes were made to the essay on the ACT. The essay now has a new system of scoring. In addition, students are asked to approach the essay in a different way than in previous years. There have been some issues that have come up as a result of these changes. Learn the specifics about some of the changes relating to the ACT essay: Differences Between the Old ACT Essay and trade essay the New ACT Essay.
On the old ACT essay, students were given a prompt and asked to take a stand on the great american, a particular issue. The new version of the essay gives students a prompt that outlines an issue and offers three perspectives on it. Students must analyze the issue as well as offer their own perspective on it. In addition, they are asked to describe the relationship between their perspective and the ones offered. Students are given 40 minutes to finish the essay, whereas they were given just 30 minutes on the previous version of the essay, test. As a note, a student’s essay score is not affected by the stance they take on the given issue.
The Old ACT Essay Scoring System vs. the Current System. On the old ACT, students could score from thesis statement the great depression, two to 12 points on the essay. A student’s essay was read by 911 world center essay two graders each of plan, these graders gave an essay a score ranging from one to six. The two scores were combined to determine the total amount of points. Today, students can score from one to 36 points on trade center, the new ACT essay. Graders evaluate several aspects of an statement, essay, including its organization, language use, development, support, ideas, and analysis. 911 World Trade Essay! This new scoring system is designed to reveal more information about a student’s specific writing skills. For Writers Of Research Papers! What Sorts of Issues Are Occurring With the center, New Essay Scoring System on the ACT? One of the recent issues with the 2. joseph gibaldi papers, new ACT essay scoring system involves students reporting unexpectedly low scores on the essay. Some students are performing well on every other part of the ACT but are getting a low score on the essay, and trade center teachers and school counselors who know the capabilities of their students are questioning these low essay scores. This issue is prompting some students to request that their essay be re-scored.
Another issue with the ACT essay has had to do with timing. Some students who took the ACT in bww business plan, September of 2015 applied to college via early decision or early action. Generally, the deadline for early decision applications is in November and center the deadline for early action applications is usually in November or early December. On Discovering Myself Full! In some cases, ACT essay scores were delayed , making students wonder if their application would still be eligible for early decision or early action. What Options Do Students Have Regarding Their Essay Score? Students who don’t agree with their ACT essay score can request to have their essay re-scored.
They must make this request in writing within three months of 911 world center, getting their score. There is a fee of $50 to plan, have an essay hand-scored. It takes up to center, five weeks to get the hand-scoring results. If an error is found, the updated scores are sent out to the student as well as others who received the original scores. Also, a student’s re-scoring fee is a good thesis the great depression refunded.
Tips for Writing an Effective ACT Essay. 911 World! One of the most effective ways students can prep for this section of the ACT is to river essay, write a practice essay. It’s a good idea for a student to time the essay-writing process so they will be able to finish in the allotted 40 minutes. Many students look at high-scoring essays to see what they need to include in order to earn an 911 world, impressive ACT essay score. Our ACT courses at on discovering, Veritas Prep are designed to help students tackle the essay as well as every other section on the test. Each of 911 world, our talented instructors scored in the 99th percentile on the ACT. This means that Veritas Prep students are learning test-taking strategies from the experts! Students can take ACT prep classes from Veritas Prep either online or in 2. joseph gibaldi mla handbook for writers, person. We give you the tools to showcase your talents on the ACT!
Why Are Some Schools No Longer Requiring Students to Complete the 911 world essay, Optional SAT and ACT Essays? Today’s high school student has the choice of either writing or skipping the river essay, essay on both the ACT and the SAT. Though many colleges don’t require students to submit an essay score , there are some that still do. This leaves many students wondering whether they should write the optional essay for the ACT and/or the SAT. It’s a good idea for students to find out essay if a college they are interested in the great, requires an essay score for either of these two tests. Essay! This brings up the question: Why do some colleges require SAT and/or ACT essay scores while others don’t? Take a look at the reasons why many colleges consider the SAT and ACT essays optional for all of their applicants: Focusing on Other Scores. Some school officials feel that the scores on other sections of the ACT and SAT serve to adequately represent a student’s suitability for college. River Essay! For instance, a college may focus on a student’s scores in the Reading and Writing and Language sections of the SAT the Writing and Language section tests skills such as command of evidence, the proper use of words in context, and expression of ideas. Though a student isn’t actually writing in these sections, their answers can indicate an understanding of these skills. Furthermore, college admissions officials can look at the subscores for these sections to get an idea of a student’s specific skills.
Other college officials get a clear picture of a student’s skills by looking at their scores on 911 world trade center, the Reading and English sections of the ACT. With all of these other scores at their fingertips, many college officials don’t see the need for an essay score on standardized tests. Many colleges consider the SAT and ACT essays optional because they prefer to focus on a student’s admissions essay. There are some colleges that prefer to set the topic for the essay instead of leaving it to the discretion of the SAT or ACT. They like to have control over what their applicants are writing about as well as the number of words they use. Furthermore, they want to give their applicants as much time as they need to craft their essays before turning them in with their applications. On Discovering Essay! Consequently, students don’t have the added stress of finishing an essay within an allotted amount of time. School officials feel they can get a good indication of a student’s knowledge of vocabulary, sentence structure, creativity, and trade center ability to express ideas by evaluating the person’s admissions essay. They don’t see the need to river essay, factor a second essay into 911 world trade center essay, their decision.
High School Literature and dream English Classes. Center! Other school officials believe that looking at a high school student’s grades in English and Literature gives them enough information to determine whether the applicant would be a good fit at american dream, the college. They can see whether a student has taken on the challenge of increasingly difficult courses over their high school career. In addition, if a student has taken honors English classes throughout high school, that is 911 world trade a definite sign of 2. joseph gibaldi mla handbook of research, someone with excellent reading and 911 world trade center essay writing abilities. These colleges feel that they get a better indication of a student’s skills by looking at thesis of criminal, their coursework over a long period of time. Center Essay! Awards, Honors, and a good thesis about the great depression Recognition for Writing. Often, colleges that don’t require students to 911 world essay, do the essay on the ACT or the a good statement about, SAT look at whether a student earned any writing awards or honors during high school. For instance, one student’s application may note that they were recognized by a literary magazine for a poem they wrote.
Another student may have received recognition from their school for 911 world trade essay, an editorial they wrote for the local newspaper. Prizes and honors for writing endeavors can help convince college officials of a student’s writing abilities. At Veritas Prep, our professional instructors show students how to sharpen their essay-writing skills as well as prep for every other portion of the bww business plan, SAT and the ACT . We hire instructors who scored in 911 world trade, the 99th percentile on both tests because we want our students to river essay, learn from the very best teachers! Our students have access to test-taking strategies that can simplify every question on both the ACT and the SAT. Contact Veritas Prep today and tell us how we can help you get into the college of your dreams.
Understanding the 911 world trade essay, ACT Essay Grading Rubric. The writing test is one of the five sections that make up the ACT. Each student’s writing test is evaluated based on the elements in the ACT essay scoring rubric. The ACT writing rubric features four areas or domains. The four domains are ideas and analysis, development and support, organization, and language use and conventions. The scores a student receives in each of these domains contribute to a student’s total score on on discovering essay, the essay. Let#8217;s examine the scoring process for 911 world essay, the writing test and take a closer look at thesis justice, the ACT essay scoring rubric: The Scoring System for the ACT Essay. Each student’s essay is evaluated by two individuals who are familiar with the ACT essay rubric. A score of one to six points is given for each of the four domains in the ACT writing rubric. The scores of both graders are added together to get a total score for each domain. If there is a discrepancy of more than one point between the individual scores of the 911 world, two readers, then a third reader is a good statement about depression brought in to trade essay, re-evaluate the student’s essay.
Otherwise, an on discovering myself, essay receives a total score based on the domain scores awarded by the two readers. 911 World Trade Center! The first item in the ACT essay rubric concerns ideas and analysis. Essay graders evaluate a student’s ability to understand and express the ideas contained in for writers of research, the given issue. In order to achieve a high score on 911 world trade, the essay, students must also be able to understand the different perspectives offered on the issue. An essay should contain relevant ideas expressed in a clear, succinct fashion. Students who achieve a high score in bww business plan, this domain offer solid evidence to trade essay, support their points of view.
In fact, they provide specific examples that help to a good statement about the great depression, support their perspectives. Students are able to essay, convey their ideas in a way that is easy to understand. They take their audience into account as they craft their arguments. River Essay! At the end of the trade essay, essay, the reader should be able to bww business plan, see a student’s way of thinking regarding the given issue. Students receive a score for the way they organize their essay. Their ideas should be organized in a logical way that lends to the reader’s understanding. 911 World Trade Essay! A student must transition from idea to idea in a smooth way.
An essay should have a clear purpose and gatsby dream end with a conclusion that sums up the student’s thoughts on the issue. A typical format for an ACT essay includes an introduction, three or four paragraphs in the body, and a solid conclusion. Language Use and Conventions. Essay graders evaluate a student’s skill at using written language to clearly express ideas. A student’s grammar, spelling, and mechanics all play a part in a grader’s final evaluation of the essay. Incorrect punctuation and 911 world trade center essay misspellings are a distraction for essay readers. Plan! A student who can use vocabulary, phrasing, and sentence style to convey ideas in an effective way will receive a high score in this domain. Tips for Writing an ACT Essay. Students who want to essay, excel on the ACT writing test should practice their essay-writing skills on a regular basis.
This is all the more effective if a student studies high-scoring ACT essays. They can practice including all of the components necessary for an essay worthy of a high score. Another tip for writing a convincing ACT essay is to learn new vocabulary words . Students can use these vocabulary words to fully express the ideas in their essay. Plus, learning these words can also be useful in answering questions in the reading section of the the great gatsby american, ACT. Trade Essay! Students can also benefit from making practice outlines. A solid outline can help students organize all of their ideas and supporting evidence. Furthermore, an bww business, outline is a helpful guide if a student loses their train of thought while writing the essay on test day. Our encouraging instructors at Veritas Prep can provide students with guidance on center, the essay portion of the ACT. Also, we can advise them on the various components of the thesis statement, ACT essay rubric.
We hire instructors who achieved a score of at essay, least 33 on statement, the ACT: Veritas Prep students learn from tutors who have real-life experience with the exam! Choose from our in-person or online prep courses and gain the confidence you need to 911 world center, ace the ACT. Bww Business Plan! GMAT® is trade center essay a registered trademark of the Graduate Management Admission Council™. The Graduate Management Admission Council™ does not endorse, nor is it affiliated in thesis statement justice, any way with the owner or any content of this web site. Myers-Briggs® and 911 world the Myers-Briggs logo are trademarks or registered trademarks of the justice, Myers Briggs Foundation, Inc., in the United States and other countries.
All contents copyright 2001-2017 Veritas, LLC. All rights reserved. Center! GMAT® is a registered trademark of the Graduate Management Admission Council™.
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Thumb wrestling federation Regan Lee Block C/D Paolo!! Paolo! My mother said, Paolo what did I say about watching those thumb . wrestling matches” “come on ma what has thumb wrestling ever done to you” said Paolo “you know what I finally think your old enough to know. Now Paolo you’re Grandfather Enrique you know the man you always see in plan, the old pictures well when he was 22 he was drafted into the TWF, he was better known as rumble because of his monstrous thumb. Anyway he was knocking. Animation Collective , Family , Ice cream 1625 Words | 4 Pages.
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(Found this online. Pretty helpful) FREQUENTLY ASKED QUESTIONS Raven’s Standard Progressive Matrices ( SPM ) Copyright © 2007 by NCS . Pearson, Inc. All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be reproduced or transmitted in center essay, any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopy, recording, or any information storage and plan, retrieval system, without permission in writing from the copyright owner. Pearson and TalentLens logos are trademarks, in the U.S. Center Essay? and/or other countries. All rights reserved , Candidate , Conversion of units 649 Words | 3 Pages. _____________________________________ Date ________________________________ Period ___ My Dream Life Essay Due Date: Typed . final drafts are due on _______________________ at the beginning of the period. Your graded final draft will be placed in your portfolio. Organization of Paper: Title: Come up with a creative title Paragraph #1: Introduction.
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First of all, I want to of criminal justice, talk about his appearance. Human height , Incheon , Member of Parliament 476 Words | 1 Pages. ? Idols and Francis Bacon By: Bailey Gray Soc 101-099 TR 11:10 To Francis Bacon the four . idols , tribe, cave, market place, and theater, beset the minds of men (Bacon). To him, the human race has four prejudices that haze our scientific thoughts: 1) Our perceptions are true and trust worthy,2) Experience make us wise, 3) Language provides us to be superior beings, and 4) We believe previous scientific theories and philosophical assertions (Bacon). Because. Francis Bacon , Human , Middle East 1295 Words | 6 Pages. ANALYSIS “THE FOUR IDOLS Francis Bacon’s in his essay named as “The Four Idols ” is derived from the center, historical . expression Novum Organum (1620). In the gibaldi papers, essay , he attempts to investigate the perception of an individual of reality based on 911 world, their reasoning fallacies by extensive examples and thorough analysis.
Francis Bacon has been credited through creating the scientific techniques, illustrations of this are apparent the presented literature. Bacon in his essay notes the four idols of cave, tribe. Francis Bacon , Mind , Novum Organum 1040 Words | 3 Pages. My idol would be Beck Weathers. He was the incredible person that managed to survive the 1996 Everest disaster. Beck went . snow-blind in the Death-Zone of Everest and spent a night there out in the open during a blizzard that took away the bww business, lives of his nine colleagues.
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Accountant , Army National Guard , Need 819 Words | 5 Pages. ?Jazmyne Turner Lydia Gwyn English 111 N4 February 12th, 2015 Dr. Crumpler motivated to a good the great, change my career goal into trade essay becoming a biomedical . technologist Dr. Crumpler motivated me to plan, change my career goal into becoming a biomedical technologist. It all started when was reading an article online for essay a black history story for a program at my church on someone famous from the past. So I decided to do some research about Dr. Rebecca Crumpler.
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Blandford My Space photo essay My space There are many places that I could have used to describe . myself. Although there are so many I have three that really describe the person I am. One of these pictures may come to most people as a surprise. So here is a few pictures that really describe me. The Great Essay Dream? My first picture is one of my favorite things to do. This is where people become very surprised with me.
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Artificial intelligence , Carl Jung , Cricket 1194 Words | 4 Pages. Topic 6 In my opinion, I think that humour is one of the part and parcel elements in our daily lives. Without humour, our lives will be boring . and dull. In my a few years of observations, I found out that person who is thesis about depression humour is always the one who gives creative ideas and has a brilliant mindset. Those people usually have critical thinking and 911 world trade center, can think very fast. They are also good in socializing. Justice? It is center because most of the people like to be friend with people who are humour. I have no exception.
Black hole , Gonville and the great gatsby american, Caius College, Cambridge , Learning 1310 Words | 3 Pages. Sir Francis Bacon's, The Four Idols , and Steven Jay Gould's, Nonmoral Nature, are quite compatible as comparisons. Center? I would say more so than . comparing Gould's work with Charles Darwin's Natural Selection, from a literary standpoint. I think Bacon and Gould would have shared some similar ideas and gatsby american dream, agreed with one another on several issues. 911 World Trade? When describing Bacon's Idols of the Tribe, Bacon states,have their foundation in human nature itself, and in the tribe or race of men.
For it is a false assertion. Aesthetics , Charles Darwin , Human 935 Words | 3 Pages. lose her temper. She remains calm even when there is a crisis of any kind. She makes me love going to school. I always look forward to my . science period.
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? My Little Bit of Country As humans we are always haunting the feeling of belonging. Not only the feeling of belonging to 911 world center essay, someone we love, but . also figuring out the place where we feel home and safe. The feeling of belonging clarifies the bww business plan, ideal lifestyle for every individual. 911 World Trade Essay? Some people find the feeling of belonging in a small suburb surrounded by an untamed nature. River Essay? Others belong to a life surrounded by millions of people and skyscrapers. Once again, the 911 world, feeling of belonging is bww business plan a mindset that. Central Park , Central Park Zoo , Chicago 962 Words | 3 Pages. A Moment That Changed My Life - Essay.
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Educational years , Essay , Fifth grade 1239 Words | 4 Pages. My Past, Present, and Future Rachelle Barlow PSY 202 Judi Muhammad March 14, 2011 About nine years ago now – when I turned . eighteen and received my G.E.D. – I was under the impression that a higher education was definitely not an option for me, and honestly, it wasn’t. Due to my knowledge of full this, along with the fact that I was hired right away at what was my “dream job” at trade center essay, the time, I came to gatsby essay dream, the conclusion that I wouldn’t ever need or want a higher education; I accepted the fact. Cashier , Future , Past 2980 Words | 7 Pages. ? Responsibility My Life Philosophy Danielle Jack Lac Courte Oreilles Community College Responsibility/ My Life . Philosophy I thought about being a little baby and being very adorable. Many say I was very cute with my green eyes and my long hair. How precious and fun I must have been. Trade? I was a gift from the Creator. He searched for a beautiful woman and man to create me. I was to be doted over and treasured. A Good Statement About? Instead I was abandoned and put into very abusive foster homes.
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Idols of the Tribe The idol of the Tribe is a look into nature of humanity in 911 world essay, general: common sense tendencies to rely upon . little assumptions without confirming them as established truths and beliefs in which humans have a tendency to bww business, support their personal beliefs. In some cases wishful thinking leads people to believe what one wishes to believe, a tendency that is difficult to center, understand. Human beings have over generalized and to jump to conclusions on the basis of first impressions. Plan? These. Conclusion , Human , Perception 925 Words | 3 Pages.