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Prehistoric Fishweirs in Eastern North America. Submitted in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of Master of Arts in Anthropology in the Graduate School of the State University of New York at Binghamton, May 1992. Accepted in partial fulfillment of the requirements for sample, the degree of Master of Arts in Anthropology in the Graduate School of the State University of thesis New York at Binghamton: Charles Cobb, Department of Anthropology. Randall McGuire, Department of Anthropology.
Copyright 1992 by allen lutins. Fish weirs, or semi-permanent traps aimed at research proposal, the exploitation of problem essays middle aquatic resources, occur throughout the eastern seaboard of research sample North America. Many, perhaps hundreds, are of prehistoric construction. Their existence is virtually unrecognized in the archaeological literature for eastern North America, potentially resulting in inadequate reconstructions of subsistence and settlement patterns in this region. This thesis is an attempt to synthesize the information for all known prehistoric weirs in eastern North America, and to analyze that information for its importance in reconstructing prehistoric subsistence and thesis on web crawlers settlement patterns. This is the text of proposal my thesis as it was written in 1992. Since that time, a few strides have been made in fish weir research, particularly the new research at Sebasticook Lake (Maine), renewed research at Boylston Street (Boston, Massachusetts), and publication of John Connaway's Fishweirs - A World Perspective . There's one HTML feature which may not be obvious: If you click on a note number, which looks like this:  you'll be put at the Notes section at thesis, the end; by clicking on the Note number (which looks like 3.) you'll be returned to your place in the text. This project would have been entirely impossible if not for leads and tidbits of information passed on to me by research proposal introduction sample numerous people over the years. Business! Among those who were particularly helpful were (in alphabetical order) John Cavallo, Dena Dincauze, Jonathan Gell and the rest of the staff at New Jersey DEP's Office of New Jersey Heritage (as well as the introduction sample staff of other DEP offices, including the Division of Coastal Resources and the Division of audit cover letter Fish, Game and Wildlife), Rob Jacoby, Bill Oliver, Leonid Shmookler, and Vin Steponaitis.
Bill Frazier is to be especially commended for the generous amount of information and photocopies which he provided me; and I thank the staff of the proposal introduction Inter-Library Loan office at the Bartle Library at SUNY-Binghamton for processing my numerous (and often arcane) requests. Special thanks go to Randy McGuire, who provided input and help valuable feedback on introduction sample previous incarnations of this project, and conventionality thesis both Randy and research introduction sample Charlie Cobb for their editorial advice and guidance. Charlie was particularly helpful in helping me to locate sources of information pertaining to problem essays southeastern archaeology. For minor but necessary contributions, I gratefully acknowledge the research proposal introduction sample assistance of the New Jersey State Museum staff, and the various archaeologists who have served in the Army Corps of Engineers, New York District over the years. Last but not least, I owe perhaps my greatest debt to my fellow graduate students, too numerous to name, who not only provided me with tips on sources and other useful information, but also maintained the creative, supportive, and cooperative environment necessary for my completing such a task. Any omissions, oversights, or misrepresentations in help on dissertation this paper are completely my own, and do not reflect deficiencies on the part of the above-named people. This thesis is dedicated to Dave Wasilewski, who more than anyone else, helped me to keep my sanity during my years in Binghamton.
When I need a break, Dave is always there; and when I need to get out introduction sample of the cover area, Dave is always a willing partner in road trips, back-packing treks, and the like. The few times he wasn't available, Dave generously allowed me the research proposal sample use of his car so that I could escape on my own. Importance of fishing in eastern North America. Archaeologists concentrating on eastern North America have only recently begun to problem essays school realize the importance of fishing to the reconstruction of proposal introduction prehistoric subsistence patterns in eastern North America (Brumbach 1986:6, 35-36,62; Wheeler and Jones 1989:1). As a result, little is known about american, prehistoric fishing practices in much of the region (e.g., Rostlund 1952:70; Kraft 1984:5). Relatively little work has been done in the region which directly addresses this specific topic (Brumbach 1978:225). In addition, a general scarcity of data pointing to the importance of fish in prehistoric diets contributes to this lack of research proposal knowledge. Even eastern North America, the settlements, structures, and other accoutrements associated with fishing are, in general, poorly known (Moss and Erlandson 1990:143).
It is likely that fish played an important role in the diet of peoples living in business pro reviews the vicinity of lakes, rivers, and the Atlantic coast, as this was the case for peoples the world over beginning in the Upper Pleistocene (Wheeler and Jones 1989:xii). Sample! Fish are an conventionality thesis attractive food source because little risk and effort is expended in catching them (Perlman 1980:260,277). Fish are highly fecund, and are able to repopulate quickly despite heavy predation (Wheeler and proposal Jones 1989:4). Among hunter-gatherer/collectors, the only alternatives providing such high yields per effort expended are deer and nuts (Perlman 1980:281). In northeastern North America, Funk (1983) and Snow (1980) claim that only the former were utilized for periods pre-dating the Early to Middle Woodland based on an absence of tools commonly associated with nut-meat extraction. Numerous contact-era accounts attest to the widespread availability and extensive exploitation of fish throughout the business pro reviews entire Atlantic seaboard (Brumbach 1986:37) . Archaeologists more commonly associate the Pacific Northwest with the extensive exploitation of fish. However, the Atlantic was capable of providing an equal abundance of this resource, with approximately one hundred native species large enough to warrant use as a food source (Brumbach 1986:41; Rostlund 1952:7). Fisher (1983:36) characterizes anadromous  fish as constituting probably the research introduction greatest density of available food that existed for pre-agricultural societies in the Hudson Valley. They are a particularly attractive resource because spawning runs occur within a highly predictable time frame (e.g., Fisher 1983:40; Kraft and problem Mounier 1982:61; Funk 1983:337). These runs can usually be accurately predicted to introduction sample within a few days (Schalk 1977:213).
It is unlikely that such a predictably available resource would be ignored. Fishing and the archaeological record. Fishweirs, or simply weirs, are traps built in coastal, estuarine or riverine waters to thesis capture large numbers of fish (Schalk 1977:232). Although they are represented in the archaeological record throughout eastern North America, there has been an absence of coordinated research on them. Despite destruction due to age or from urbanization, a number of weirs still survive, as do numerous references (both early ethnohistoric descriptions of their use and more contemporary descriptions of their presence) to weirs no longer extant. In some parts of the world, prehistoric weirs have received considerable study .
Only one source, Rostlund's Freshwater Fish and Fishing in Native North America (1952), discusses eastern North American weirs somewhat comprehensively. Despite listing dozens of areas containing weirs, Rostlund presents no map of research weir locations nor accurate sketches of the great gatsby essay american weirs. Proposal! It is clear that Rostlund omitted a number of sources of information which were available to him. Also, a fair amount of new information has been made available since publication of his work. Unfortunately, much of this information derives from contract archaeology reports, which are not widely disseminated. This led Johnston and Cassavoy to conclude (1978:708): An earnest search of the accessible literature on thesis weirs has revealed that it leaves much to proposal be desired and, with one exception, that there is a virtual absence of useful references to solution middle archaeological weirs. The paucity of references devoted to fishweirs is not an research proposal indication of their rarity. Peck (1977:5) claims that (t)housands of stone fish traps occur throughout the Piedmont region along the internal audit manager cover letter Atlantic Seaboard. This is likely an exaggeration, even including historic and modern weirs. To date, weirs in only four locations have been adequately sketched and accurately mapped .
This is unfortunate, as the continuing processes of river dredging for navigational purposes and natural erosion are serving to destroy weirs. Archaeologists associate a number of general assumptions with weirs. One is that weirs are usually associated with the exploitation of anadromous and catadromous fish (Schalk 1977:232). Another is that they are temporally and proposal introduction sample spatially non-diagnostic (Flannery 1939:17). Given the paucity of research undertaken regarding weirs, it is clear that such hypotheses are often untested, especially regarding weirs in eastern North America. The inadequacy of information regarding fishweirs also impinges on gatsby essay dream reconstructions of proposal introduction prehistoric subsistence and settlement patterns.
If fishweirs were widely employed, this implies that fish were a more important dietary element than archaeologists currently realize. Similarly, the use of weirs may have affected settlement patterns because of the time and seasonal constraints necessitated by their construction, repair, and utilization. I will summarize the available literature on prehistoric weirs in eastern North America, and analyze their construction and use. Plan! A discussion of related issues (such as consequences for the reconstruction of subsistence and settlement patterns) follows, in an attempt to better understand the role of research proposal introduction fishing in prehistoric eastern North America, and plan pro reviews the nature of weirs themselves. Particular attention will be paid to research introduction sample the possibilities of business plan pro reviews determining the spatial and research proposal temporal variability of weirs, and to augmenting our general knowledge of prehistoric subsistence and settlement patterns, based on help the study of weirs.
Reasons for paucity of data on weirs and fishing. Why do fishweirs remain virtually ignored in the archaeological literature of eastern North America? One can point to three basic deficiencies as the cause: A lack of archaeological data, a shortage of historical references, and a paucity of contemporary research on the subject of weirs. Archaeological data concerning the role of fish weirs and research proposal fishing are lacking for a number of the great gatsby essay reasons. These can be broken down into three basic categories: the nature of research proposal introduction sample fishing sites and their associated features, lack of preservation, and help on dissertation sampling biases. Perhaps we can include in the latter a relative shortage of financial support given to large-scale and/or long-term projects in the northeastern United States, as compared with other parts of the country (Kraft 1984). Nature of fishing sites and weirs. Fishweirs generally consist of impediments across part or all of a river, or walls built to ensnare fish in coastal areas. Most surviving weirs are of stone, rendering direct dating impossible (Godwin 1988:52; Johnston and Cassavoy 1978: 708). This means that most archaeological dating of weirs derives either from direct dating of research proposal introduction extant stake weirs (of which there are few), or indirect dating based on associated materials (Godwin 1988:53).
Aside from the thesis crawlers weirs themselves, there is a general lack of research proposal sample material technology associated with the exploitation of fish (Whyte 1988:115; Brumbach 1978:7). Weir-fishing renders the use of the great gatsby american recognizable fishing implements (such as hooks, net sinkers, etc.) unnecessary. This may account (in part) for the lack of such tools in introduction sample the archaeological record overall (Fisher 1983:37). It is also likely that some fish-processing tools and features go unrecognized by archaeologists (Brumbach 1986:37). For example, Fisher (1983:39) reports that in three seasons of excavations at the Shantok Cove site in Connecticut, only one fishing implement (which he fails to identify) was found, yet thousands of help fish bones were recovered. No artifacts typically associated with fishing activities were found during limited excavations in the vicinity of known weirs in the Potomac (Strandberg and Tomlinson 1969:319).
Archaeologists seldom discover fish remains, in part because of specific discard patterns associated with such vestiges. Ethnographic and ethnoarchaeological reports indicate that people usually discard (and process) fish away from habitation areas, or else they thoroughly burn fish remains, because of their b smell and propensity to introduction sample attract scavengers (Brumbach 1986:37,44,46; Whyte 1988:115). In general, fish bones are relatively small in audit cover size, further hampering efforts aimed at their discovery. Research Proposal Introduction! Among some groups, fish bones are valued as a food source during periods of help scarcity, so they may be consumed along with the meat and broken down in the intestinal tract. The bones that remain are often destroyed in the intestinal tracts of scavenging animals (Brumbach 1978:222; Jones 1986:53). Problems with preservation in research introduction the archaeological record hinder our knowledge of prehistoric fishing. Stake weirs are preserved only under extraordinary conditions (Johnston and Cassavoy 1978:708). Acidic soils, prevalent in the Northeast, tend to help on dissertation destroy osteological remains, especially the research sample small, delicate bones of business pro reviews fish (Brumbach 1978:7; Brumbach 1986:37). Under some conditions, fish bones may be preserved, but the research introduction sample techniques and expertise required for their recognition, recovery and analysis are currently inadequate (Wheeler and Jones 1989:3-7).
The destruction of on web crawlers entire sites along the Atlantic seaboard further hampers our ability to understand the importance of research introduction fishing in this region. Due to sea level rises previous to 3,000 to 4,000 B.P. the entire eastern seaboard has been inundated. As a result, prime locations for american, fishing (i.e., coastal areas, lagoons, and estuaries) dating to before the Woodland period are now typically 50 to 60 meters below sea level (Emery and Edwards 1966:735). In addition, those surviving sections of the eastern seaboard which were ideal for fishing were focal points for early European settlement, and are now virtually inaccessible to archaeologists due to intensive urban development (Kraft 1984:3). In general, the faunal recovery techniques archeaologists use do not retrieve bones of such small-boned creatures as fish. Better methods of recovery, such as flotation and water screening, have been known to archaeologists in eastern North America for some time now; however, their adoption to date in this area is not widespread (Brumbach 1986:37; Wheeler and Jones 1989:7). Quite a few ethnohistoric accounts depicting native fishing at the time of European contact survive, and will be related herein.
By the time Europeans reached eastern North America, fishing was likely in decline, owing to research introduction sample an increased dependence on agriculture (Brumbach 1978:6; Ritchie 1980:278). Dream! In addition, Brumbach (1986:36) notes that agricultural activities were given undue emphasis, perhaps, in research sample the observations and descriptions of the early European colonists. Therefore, fishing was likely more important throughout prehistory than is suggested by gatsby american these accounts. Contemporary folklore and stereotypes that we are exposed to contribute to a lack of knowledge concerning native American fishing practices. Brumbach (1986:36) noted that popular folklore emphasizes fertilizer value of the fish but seems vague about their consumption as food. Research Introduction Sample! Perhaps the stereotype of the hunter/gatherer among anthropologists similarly attenuated a focus on fishing, as the word fishing is not included in the phrase hunting/gathering. Despite this fact, in some societies, the role of fishing may have been equal to or surpassed that of conventionality thesis hunting and/or gathering. Research Proposal Introduction Sample!  The depletion of east coast fisheries is associated with overexploitation by conventionality thesis early European settlers. This renders contemporary reconstructions of prehistoric fishing conditions difficult to impossible (Brumbach 1978:225; Brumbach 1986:50). The depletion of fisheries is a problem with roots centuries old (Brumbach 1978:250; Brumbach 1986:61).
Concerning early colonial New England, Bakeless (1961:223) reports: Plymouth set the (fishing) limit between five hundred and one thousand barrels (of fish) for the town as a whole. By the Revolution this had come down to two hundred barrels. In 1730 each household was limited to four barrels. In 1763, the towns of Plymouth and Wareham took 150 barrels from Agawam Brook alone. Sad to proposal introduction say, in the Merrimac River, salmon, shad, and alewives were growing less abundant as early as 1753. An incredible array of thesis practices resulted in the depletion of Atlantic fisheries, especially in the Northeast. These included water diversion for sample, canals, thermal and chemical pollution, dam-building, dredging for navigational purposes, and over-fishing (Brumbach 1978 228, 251-2; Brumbach 1986:61-2; Brydon 1974). In addition, a number of manager species were displaced (sometimes intentionally, sometimes accidentally) by non-native species such as the carp and rainbow trout (Brumbach 1986:36; Wheeler and Jones 1989:34). Weirs themselves suffer from introduction a lack of research in eastern North America. Both historic and prehistoric weirs dot the landscape, yet they seem to internal manager have escaped the research proposal introduction attention of historians and archaeologists alike.
Like the populations of fish which crowded eastern rivers, fishweirs too are certainly far fewer in abundance than they once were. Their location in (and often under) bodies of water means that access to them will be limited, if they are sighted at all. Archaeologists often draw a distinction between weirs and traps (see, for example, Chapman 1975:3). Erhard Rostlund, in a comprehensive discussion of solution school weirs in North America, notes that the function of every weir is to obstruct the passage of the proposal fish in order to facilitate its capture, and the purpose of business every trap is to research impound the fish so that it cannot get away (Rostlund 1952:101). Crawlers! Johnston and Cassavoy (1978:706) reiterate this distinction, but note: Weirs and traps may be used independently but their functions are often combined in a single structure when traps are used to collect the research introduction sample fish forced by the weir to a narrow outlet. Thus, it is not always a simple matter to distinguish between the two.
In this thesis, any large-scale, relatively permanent  device used to aid in the capture of large numbers of fish will be referred to as a weir. Also, the term tidal weir will be used refer to any device (again, large-scale and relatively permanent) used to trap fish behind an conventionality obstruction with the fall of the tide, following Rostlund's definition of research introduction sample a tidal trap (Rostlund 1952:101). There are two basic materials from which weirs are constructed: stone, and wooden stakes. Thesis Crawlers! Archaeologists sometimes refer to brush weirs, but the term `stake' will be used throughout this thesis to distinguish a device made from upright poles. Stake weirs are generally constructed of similar-sized poles, as opposed to `brush,' which is interpreted herein as the placement of piles of branches without regard to size and length (this latter method is sometimes employed as part of research introduction sample a weir, as will be seen later). A Maine fisherman who employed weirs in this century once said, all weirs are alike but no two are the same. This refers to the fact that all weirs were used for the same purpose, but each is especially adapted to its particular environmental and help on dissertation topographic setting (Johnston and Cassavoy 1978:705). In order to be practical, weirs must be built in locations where fish are in abundance for at least part of the year (Johnston and Cassavoy 1978:705).
If they are not moving in large numbers of their own accord (i.e., during spawning runs), the fish must be induced to do so (Rostlund 1952:101). Additional factors which influence the location of weirs include their proximity to raw materials for the weir's construction, and water of a particular depth range (Avery 1975:105; Chapman 1975:8; Rostlund 1952:101). For tidal weirs, this may mean a location where water levels vary only 2.2 meters between high and low tides (Avery 1975:111) . Research Proposal! Riverine weirs commonly seem to be built on thesis crawlers existing shoals and in other naturally shallow areas. The sandy nature of sea bottoms and introduction sample the force of ocean gales and waves on the coast add to the complications of fishweir construction.
Tidal weirs were likely restricted to lagoons and estuaries to avoid some of these difficulties (Larson 1980:10-11). The construction of conventionality riverine traps carries different concerns. They must be built in research sample rivers that are not so swift as to pro reviews destroy the weirs, yet are not too sluggish (Chapman 1975:8; Brinkhuizen and Clason 1983:15). In addition, they must be designed to be resistant to river currents (Chapman 1975:8). Based on observations from Alaska, Australia, Japan, and sample southern Africa, weirs seem to conform to thesis one of three basic designs: The first is the tidal weir. Proposal Sample! The second is a maze-like arrangement of walls; the design is such that fish easily find their way in, but can not easily escape. This design is usually used in estuarine areas, and so may be defined as a type of tidal weir. The third is an obstructing wall which funnels fish to on dissertation a particular point at which they may be trapped or removed (Godwin 1988:52). This is the form used in all riverine structures.
There are perhaps other types of weirs which do not fall into these basic categories, but they are rare, and there are no reports of them from eastern North America . While conforming to proposal these three basic designs, weirs are constructed with a great diversity of specific shapes and plan pro reviews materials. Both tidal (lagoon and estuarine) and riverine weirs are subject to proposal introduction damage from the elements, including excessive currents (flooding in riverine/estuarine environments and gales in crawlers lagoon/coastal environments) and damage from large floating objects. Proposal Introduction Sample! Therefore, it is likely that weirs needed to be rebuilt from solution school time to time (Johnston and Cassavoy 1978:706-7). How difficult is it to build and maintain weirs? It is possible that some weirs are relatively simple to build. However, this view is based on analogies with simple contemporary projects or with weirs from other parts of the world, rather than the large stone or stake weirs known from eastern North America (for example, Godwin 1988:56; Wheeler and Jones 1989:28,171). Swezey and Heizer (1984:973) make it clear that it often takes a relatively large number of people in order for weir construction to be an easy task. Proposal Sample! Alternatively, weir construction may be relatively labor-intensive (Hubbert and help on dissertation Wright 1987:98; Schalk 1977:232). This assumption is similarly flawed, apparently being based on simple observations of stone weirs, rather than controlled studies or observations of their construction (e.g., Peck 1977:3; Larson 1980:123).
In truth, it is almost certain that the difficulty of weir building depends on a number of factors, including the research number of people available, the topography of the location, the availability of materials, and the design of the weir. Descriptions of internal manager cover weir use in the archaeological literature are extremely contradictory. I will relate the proposal introduction sample basic methods of weir use as reconstructed in the archaeological literature. Actual descriptions of weir use from ethnographic accounts will follow, succeeded by discussions relating to these reconstructions and descriptions. Weirs can be used in audit manager cover either an active or passive manner, or occasionally a combination of the two (Brinkhuizen and Clason 1983:15). Tidal weirs are an example of the latter; they simply trap fish behind an research introduction obstruction with the fall of the tide.
One then collects the business fish at a convenient time. Riverine and estuarine weirs (and perhaps some coastal weirs as well) may be used either way; fish may be ensnared in research sample large numbers of on dissertation their own accord during spawning runs, or they may be corralled in the weir through human intervention (Rostlund 1952:101). All of the descriptions of weir use in the ethnographic accounts to follow fit these patterns. As with discussions of weir construction and use, there is proposal introduction, no consensus concerning the species selectivity of business plan weirs. Since older ethnographic accounts are seldom sufficiently detailed, most of the data on this issue derive from contemporary experiments and analogies from other regions.
Some reports claim that the research proposal variety of species obtained in a weir is quite small, but these generally derive from analogies with fishing in Africa, Tasmania, or other regions whose comparison to the situation in middle school eastern North America is questionable. Other reports from these same regions are at variance with these conclusions (Godwin 1988:53). A similar debate exists as to the size range of fish caught with weirs (Godwin 1988:54; Wheeler and Jones 1989:28). Research Proposal Introduction! Literature discussing the species and size selectivity of fish trapped in weirs is insufficient from the great essay american dream which to draw definitive conclusions, but experimental evidence suggests that, with little difficulty, traps can be constructed so as to select for particular size ranges of fish (Mahaffy 1978:59). Like species selectivity, seasonality of weir fishing is also characterized by conflicting testimony. Archaeologists in the Northeast often refer to sites associated with fishing locations as fishing stations (e.g., Snow 1980:200,216,230). They often assume that such sites were occupied for short terms only in both the Northeast (e.g., Kraft and Mounier 1982:61; Fisher 1983:36; Lenik 1985:153; Williams and Thomas 1982:122) and research proposal introduction sample the Southeast (e.g., Jones 1873:324; Jenkins and Krause 1986:41,119). However, assumptions of short term usage are unjustified. There are areas (particularly in thesis the Southeast) where fish are available nearly year-round. Due to species diversity in the Southeast, anadromous fish runs take place throughout much of the year (Schalk 1977:216,241). This is proposal introduction sample, a particularly important issue, as it relates directly to help on dissertation questions regarding the settlement patterns of people employing fishweirs.
Since weirs were employed throughout the entire eastern seaboard, these issues carry immense implications. Known prehistoric weirs in eastern North America. The following discussion of prehistoric fish weirs is based on ethnographic accounts, historic and contemporary descriptions of extant weirs, and contemporary archaeological findings. Research Sample! They are presented primarily from north to american south, starting with the western Great Lakes region, and research sample proceeding thence to New England, then southward along the Atlantic coast. It usually difficult to ascertain the age of a fishweir with any degree of help on dissertation certainty. Research Proposal Introduction! The three basic criteria used in this thesis include contemporary archaeological analyses, contact era accounts, and historic (i.e., eighteenth, nineteenth, and early twentieth century) descriptions. Audit Cover Letter! Of these criteria, archaeological analyses which include modern dating techniques are the most reliable indicator of age. Unfortunately, few weirs have been so analyzed to date. Contact-era accounts of weir use are the next best alternative for information regarding prehistoric weirs.
Most of the sources cited herein are extremely early (often sixteenth century), when native fishing practices presumably remained little influenced by European practices. These accounts seem credible judging by the great consistency between them (Rostlund 1952:80). Also, the practices and devices described were alien to the authors of these works; therefore, they tended to include meticulous details concerning these devices. In addition, there was little incentive to research proposal introduction exaggerate or fraudulently depict the use of weirs, as opposed to exaggerations involving issues of land productivity or religion. Historic accounts dating to the last few centuries are less reliable sources of information concerning prehistoric weirs. Prehistoric weirs were sometimes refurbished and problem essays re-used by both Native Americans and colonists during historic times (Strandberg and Tomlinson 1969:313), and new weirs were constructed by introduction sample European colonists. Therefore, when historic accounts claim that a particular weir or set of weirs is prehistoric, every attempt was made to discover corroborating or contradictory evidence for such claims. This section is divided into sections based primarily on contemporary state boundaries. Help! Although this is an admittedly arbitrary delineation (bearing in mind that these boundaries did not exist throughout the time period when these structures were built), there are two basic reasons for retaining this hierarchy: First, most of the overviews from which these data are derived consist of surveys done on introduction sample a state-wide basis.
Second, it will be important for comparative purposes to separate these accounts by region, and this method will permit a high degree of specificity in internal audit manager cover letter this regard. Allouez, a Jesuit missionary to the Sac Indians in Wisconsin in the seventeenth century, described a stake weir which spanned the width of the St. Francis River, used to catch Sturgeon and research proposal sample every other kind of help fish in the spring and summer (Brumbach 1986:39). Only one extant weir has been described from the midwest, a stone structure located on research sample the Chariton River (near its confluence with the Missouri River) in american dream Missouri (Connaway 1982:156). Shields (1967:490) presents evidence that this was indeed a prehistoric structure, and that it was originally V-shaped (with a gap in the center), but was reconstructed (and its design altered) by European Americans sometime after 1837. Research Proposal Introduction Sample! The structure was repeatedly dynamited in the early twentieth century (after several sequences of rebuilding) by the Missouri Fish and Game Commission when weir fishing was outlawed (Shields 1967:491). A postcard in this author's possession depicts a stone weir on the Iowa River (in Iowa) which is reputed to be prehistoric (Figure 1). The exact shape is unclear, but appears to correspond roughly to the common V-configuration.
Unfortunately, no scholarly sources discussing this feature could be located. The text of the postcard indicates that this structure can only be seen in times of low water. Peter Kalm recorded the use of weirs in this region in plan his diary on 4 August 1749. He described a tidal weir on the St. Research Proposal Introduction! Lawrence River near Quebec, employed predominantly for catching eels, made of twisted oziers, so close that no fish can get through them. on one side near the bottom is an entrance for the fishes, made of twigs, and on web sometimes of yarn made into a net. (Benson 1964:423-424). LeJeune described these weirs at an earlier date, mentioning their use by the Montagnais (Brumbach 1986:40). Again, eels were mentioned as the predominant species obtained. LeJeune described a stake weir that included stone walls on either side. The earliest known reference to research proposal these weirs dates to the sixteenth century, when Samuel de Champlain noted: (a) great catch of fish takes place by means of a number of thesis on web weirs which almost close the research proposal strait, leaving only small openings where they set their nets in plan which the fish are caught. (Johnston and Cassavoy 1978:698).
Neither this description nor that of Peter Kalm mentions stone elements. Archaeological investigations demonstrate that weirs were in use in the St. Proposal Introduction Sample! Lawrence drainage long before European contact. Between 1973 and 1974, an help on dissertation archaeological investigation at the outlet of research proposal sample Lake Simcoe, at Atherley Narrows, Ontario, revealed 535 stakes clearly arranged for use as fish weirs (Johnston and Cassavoy 1978). These were accompanied by a feature composed of rocks, presumably to serve as a footing in this area of soft mud (Johnston and Cassavoy 1978:704). In one area, the stakes ranged from one-half to three inches in diameter, and were oriented to obstruct fish swimming with the current toward Lake Couchiching and direct them toward the thesis outlet in the vicinity of the rock-covered bottom (Johnston and research Cassaovy 1978:704). In another area, Johnston and problem solution middle school Cassavoy claim that the stakes are oriented on the diagonal northwest-southeast and would serve to obstruct fish swimming upstream toward Lake Simcoe. Radiocarbon dates on a number of the stakes demonstrate that the proposal introduction weir was constructed during the on dissertation Late Archaic (Johnston and Cassavoy 1978:704) .
An unidentified early colonist commented that the Micmac employed a fence of wood clear across the river to research introduction sample hinder the passage of fish in problem solution school which an opening was left for a net trap (Rostlund 1952:170). This description almost certainly refers to a weir constructed of stakes or brush, but neither the author, a specific date, nor the research proposal river(s) in question are provided. Wintemberg (1902) makes mention of stake alignments, which appear to be the remains of weirs, in Burgess Lake, near Drumbo, Ontario. Business Plan! The feature consists of a double row of stakes aligned in an L-shape at a point presumed to be the proposal prehistoric shore of the lake (Wintemberg 1902:36). Contact-era accounts attest to the use of weirs by the various nations of the manager cover Iroquois Confederacy. Beauchamp (1900:133) mentions that the research sample Onondagas and Oneidas employed eel weirs (of an indeterminate type) on the Onondaga River at conventionality thesis, Caughdenoy. He claims that (e)arly travelers described these, although he provides no references. He may be referring to the account of Dablon, a Jesuit missionary to research sample the Oneida, who wrote in 1670: Our savages construct their dams and sluices so well, that they catch at the same time the Eels, that descend, and the Salmon, that always ascends (Brumbach 1986:40). Again, a description of this weir is lacking. Jacques Bruyas, an Iroquois linguist, commented in on web crawlers the mid-19th century that the Iroquois of his time were using stone weirs lined with brush, with box traps set into proposal introduction them (Beauchamp 1905:148).
An 1894 Bureau of American Ethnology report noted at the time that (s)tone fish weirs yet remain in on dissertation some New York streams, though many have been destroyed. That report specifically mentioned a stone weir in the Seneca River, and proposal sample also refers to an account dating nearly 100 years earlier attesting to the existence of stone weirs in the Seneca River. This earlier account noted that they were V-shaped, being well made of field stones of considerable size (Thomas 1894:549). In 1900, Beauchamp described one of the Seneca River weirs (reported to be near Baldwinsville) as having three bays of problem solution essays middle unequal length reaching up to the river as it tended to the north shore. It was built of research proposal sample fieldstone and was about 1,200 feet long. Plan Pro Reviews! He claimed that the remains of research proposal sample a second weir existed nearby, and that others are found elsewhere (Bradley 1987:210). Trigger (1978:153) maintains that weirs (of an unspecified type) were in use by the Western Abenaki at problem school, the time of European contact. He is research proposal introduction, unclear about where in New England this group resided at that time. Trigger (1978:138) notes that the Eastern Abenaki in Maine utilized weirs at the time of European contact.
Unfortunately, he provides no description of the weirs nor their location. Three stone weirs were described in the 1930's in the Winnepesaukee region; two V shaped and the third W shaped. The points were oriented downstream, and spaces were left at each point (Proctor 1930:41-42,49). Moorehead (1931:51) noted one year later that most of the weirs were removed for problem solution essays middle school, navigational purposes, rendering contemporary analysis impossible. A Captain Gosnold reported in 1602 that at Martha's Vineyard, we found an old piece of a weare of the Indians to research proposal sample catch fish (Rostlund 1952:170).
A single stake found at the Buswell site on the lower Merrimack is claimed to conventionality be part of a prehistoric fishweir (Brumbach 1986:39; Barber 1980:97), but the claim is dubious, as the research introduction sample stake was left in situ untested, and no evidence for a prehistoric date is presented (Barber 1980:103). The best known prehistoric weir on on dissertation the eastern seaboard is the introduction Boylston Street weir, located under the streets of Boston. Manager! About 65,000 stakes interwoven with brush wattling occur throughout an area of approximately two acres (Johnson et al 1942; Johnson 1949; Johnston and Cassavoy 1978:708). Recent investigations (yet unpublished) determined, contrary to previous reconstructions, that these stakes constituted numerous small weirs built over many centuries (Dena Dincauze and Elena Décima, personal communication). Proposal! Like the stake weirs at Atherley Narrows, these features date to cover letter the Late Archaic , and seem to be tidal weirs (Dincauze 1973:31).
An unidentified number of stake weirs are known from the Housatonic River. Seven are said to occur within a distance of approximately 610 m with additional rows of slightly different manufacture further upriver. They are described as consisting of palisades of stakes about 5 cm (2 inches) apart across the mouth of the river (Brumbach 1978:211)). Mourt's Relation, written by one of the colonists of the research proposal sample Plymouth Plantation, mentioned the use by thesis Native Americans of a weir (type unspecified) near present-day Bristol (Heath 1963:63). There are no known accounts of proposal sample extant weirs in the great gatsby essay american Rhode Island. A number of contact era accounts attest to the use of weirs in introduction sample New York State. Trigger (1978:199) claims that weirs were used by the Mahicans in the smaller streams in northeastern New York, but fails to provide a more exact location or description of these weirs. Thesis! Further downstream in the Hudson drainage, Native Americans employed an research eel weir (no description is available) in Orange County in historic times (Beauchamp 1900:131). Weirs may have been utilized on the lower Hudson in the early seventeenth century when the Dutch first settled there. DeVries described the use of problem solution large seines, and also nets set. on sticks in the river, one and one-half fathoms deep (Brumbach 1986:42-43); the latter may refer to weirs, or simply weir-like devices. A semi-circular stone weir is research proposal sample, now or was once present on Fish Creek, at the outlet of Saratoga Lake (Rau 1885: 201).
Rau (1885:202) claims that it is prehistoric because the oldest settler has no record or tradition regarding it, and. there are directly upon the top of the wall, in different places, stumps of internal audit letter white oak betokening a growth of several centuries. Research Proposal Introduction! Brumbach (1986:39) doubts that this is on web, a prehistoric structure. If it is research proposal introduction sample, prehistoric, this would be the only weir of its type ever described from eastern North America. In southern New York, the use of a brush weir by the Oneida to catch shad on the Susquehanna was described in the 1670 account of Dablon, a Jesuit missionary (Brumbach 1986:39). A late eighteenth century description from the same area noted: . Thesis! they tye Bushes together so as to introduction sample reach over the River. Help On Dissertation! (and) sink them with Stones (Brumbach 1986:40). Trigger (1978:217) claims that early European settlers observed the use of weirs by the Delaware. He is research proposal introduction, unspecific about the exact region or type of weirs. Rostlund (1952:170) mentions accounts of business plan pro reviews stone weirs in use on the Juniata and Lehigh Rivers (the latter in the vicinity of Bethlehem) written by proposal sample European settlers in the early seventeenth century. On Web Crawlers! These were classic V-shaped structures whose points were oriented downstream; they contained openings where basket traps were placed (Rostlund 1952:170).
In more recent times, stone weirs were sighted in the Schuykill River, but no descriptions or accurate locations are provided (Strandberg and Tomlinson 1969:319). Stone weirs may also exist on research proposal the Delaware in Pennsylvania, but the gatsby essay allusion to this possibility by Strandberg and Tomlinson (1969:319) is research sample, so unspecific that it is unclear to which part of this long river the authors refer. Flannery (1939:17) mentioned tidal weirs in the Delaware, which would implicate the lower part of that river, but he fails to provide a better description of the location or design. In 1913, Skinner and Schrabisch (1913:75-78 listed eleven stone weirs in the Passaic River ; ten years later, nine of these still remained (Heusser 1923:23). All are in plan the shape of research proposal a V with the on dissertation apex oriented downstream (Lenik 1985:26). One of these, the Fair Lawn/Paterson fishweir, remains visible to research proposal this day, and audit manager letter is under study by introduction sample the author  (Figure 2). There is early historic evidence that these weirs are of prehistoric origin . The weir spans the entire width of the river, and there is no opening at the apex as is business plan, described for many similar structures. Kraft mentions two stone weirs in the Ramapo River (Bergen County Office of Cultural and Historic Affairs 1983:L11; Kraft 1976:7).
One was reportedly destroyed in 1988 when construction vehicles used it to ford the river (T. Robin Brown, personal communication); the other is unlikely to be of research proposal introduction sample prehistoric origin, based on personal inspections. Internal Manager Cover! This latter `weir' consists of a unique arrangement in the form of two L-shaped masses of rock (Kraft 1976:7; Marshall 1983:27); a large sawed wooden beam is deeply embedded within the proposal introduction sample structure. There is no clear evidence for prehistoric weirs in Delaware. Individual stakes were found in the last century in letter the Delaware River near Wilmington, but their association with a weir is introduction sample, tenuous at conventionality, best (Holmes 1896; Connaway 1982:158).
Thirty-six stone weirs were discovered in a survey of the Potomac River between Point of Rocks, Maryland and Harper's Ferry, West Virginia (Strandberg and Tomlinson 1969; Strandberg 1962) (Figure 3). A number of these are likely of colonial construction, but Strandberg and Tomlinson claim that some undoubtedly date to before European contact  (Strandberg and Tomlinson 1969). Ethnographic and contemporary accounts of weirs are perhaps more common for research sample, Virginia than for any other state. On Web Crawlers! Trigger (1978:258,284) mentions that the Algonquians in this state employed weirs at the time of European contact, as did Iroqouian tribes on the Virginia/North Carolina border. He is unclear about the location or type of weirs utilized by the Algonquians, but does note that Iroquoian groups utilized reed weirs. Luckily, numerous other contact-era sources relate more detailed accounts of these practices. Accounts of weir use in Virginia date back to the 1580's. M. Thomas Hariot and Ralph Lane observed the use of reed weirs at the time, but failed to describe such details as layout, location and method of employment (Hakluyt 1907:183). However, the engravings which accompanied Hariot's book (published in 1588) serve to ameliorate some of these shortcomings.
The engravings, prepared by Theodore DeBry from research proposal John White's watercolors (painted between 1585 and 1586, and now lost) depict stake weirs on on web crawlers the coast near Roanoke. One of the weirs appears to be a simple reed fence (Figure 4), while another consists of interconnected enclosures that open one into the next (Figures 5 and 6) (Hariot 1588). One century later, these same weirs were still in use, as were other types, judging by the following account (Beverley 1705:148): The larger Fish, that kept in deeper Water, they were put to a little more Difficulty to take; But for these they made Weyrs; that is, a Hedge of small riv'd Sticks, or Reeds, of the research proposal introduction Thickness of business a Man's Finger, these they wove together in a Row, with Straps of Green Oak, or other tough Wood, so close that the small Fish cou'd not pass through. (they) were contrived so, that the Fish could easily find their Passage into those Cods (pockets). but not see their Way out again, when they were in; Thus if they offered to pass through, they were taken. Sometimes they made a Hedge as this, quite a-cross a Creek at High-Water, and at Low wou'd go into the Run, so contracted into a narrow Compass, and take out introduction what Fish they pleased. At the Falls of the Rivers, where the Water is help, shallow, and research introduction the Current b, the Indians use another kind of Weir, thus made: They make a Dam of loose Stone, where of gatsby american dream there is plenty at hand, quite across the River, leaving One, Two, or more Spaces or Trunnels, for the Water to pass thro'; at research proposal, the Mouth of which they set a Pot or Reeds, wove in Form of a Cone, whose Base is about Three Foot, and in perpendicular Ten, into which the Swiftness of the Current carries the Fish, and wedges them so fast, that they cannot possibly return. In this description, Beverley describes three distinct types of weirs in use. The first consists of a stake trap into which fish simply wandered and were ensnared; this appears to be of the `labyrinthine' variety.
The second is also a stake weir, but is a simpler tidal trap. The third is a stone weir on help on dissertation a river. No stake (reed) traps are known today from Virginia; indeed, there are no extant tidal traps anywhere along the introduction sample Atlantic coast (Larson 1980:119). Gatsby Essay! However, accounts of stone weirs in Virginia's rivers abound. Unfortunately, it is often difficult to distinguish prehistoric from historic weirs. Strandberg and Tomlinson (1969:319) described a number of stone weirs in this century in the James and Shenandoah Rivers. At least two of the James River weirs, in Richmond, are very likely of prehistoric origin, judging by their inclusion in a seventeenth century manuscript. They are W-shaped with the points oriented downstream (Bushnell 1930:8). Research Proposal Sample! In addition, there are mid-18th century references to a stone weir on the Otter River in Bedford County (northwest of Altavista) (Gravely n.d.). Stone weirs are also known from the Rappahannock River (above Fredericksburg) and plan pro reviews the Rapidan River (at Skinkel's Ford) (Bushnell 1935).
At least one of the Rappahannock weirs is visible in Fredericksburg to this day; it is another V-shaped stone structure (Chris Lowe, personal communication). There is also a stone weir (V-shaped) visible in the Smith River in Martinsville (Gravely 1973). There are reports of historic Native American weirs on the Rappahannock, but their design is unlike any other known prehistoric weirs, and they are confirmed to be of historic construction (Speck, Hassrick and Carpenter 1946). A large number of stone weirs are known from North Carolina; unfortunately, none have ever been studied nor adequately mapped. Peck (1977:5) alleges that over research proposal introduction, one hundred weirs (certainly not all prehistoric) are said to be visible from the air in essays the Rocky River, but he fails to sample cite scholarly sources attesting to this fact. Better evidence exists for other, isolated weirs. William Oliver (personal communication) affirms the existence of a V-shaped stone weir at the Town Creek Indian Mound (31 Mg 3) in Montgomery County, another stone weir (no description provided) at the Trestle Site (31 An 19), and other stone weirs in the Pee Dee River in Montgomery, Richmond, Stanly and Anson counties. In a voyage down the Yadkin and Pee Dee Rivers in the 1920's, Douglas Rights (1929) encountered a dozen V- and middle school W-shaped stone weirs. He claims (Rights 1929:18) that they are of prehistoric origin based on the proximity of research proposal Indian village sites.
Peck (1977) established that stone weirs on the Pee Dee River consist of four distinct types, including V-shaped with a simple opening, V-shaped with a parallel opening, W-shaped, and help Multiple V-shaped. All of these types are described as having openings at the apexes. Ethnographic accounts of weir use in North Carolina are rare. Contact-era sources mention that Algonquian tribes in this state used reed weirs (Trigger 1978:273). In his diary, Ralph Lane discusses the use of proposal weirs (of an unspecified type) on the coast in March of 1586 (Larson 1980:121). There is a single ethnographic report of a weir in use by Native Americans from 1765 on the Little River (Merriweather 1940:169). It is unclear what type of help on dissertation weir this was, and whether or not it was in use previous to research proposal introduction sample European colonization. Four stone weirs exist in the Trotters Shoals Reservoir area. Investigations in the early 1970's focused on three of these structures  (Hemmings 1970). The first, 38 Ab 8, is located on the Savannah River at its juncture with the on dissertation Calhoun Branch.
It consists of a 400 foot-long wall of boulders paralleling the stream bank, with another 200 foot-long wall angling away from it as one follows it upstream. The only evidence that it may be prehistoric is the close proximity of a prehistoric site (38 Ab 10) (Hemmings 1970: 49-50). The second, 38 Ab 16, consists of an irregular boulder alignment, approximately 200 feet long, with openings at irregular intervals. This structure is introduction sample, also in the vicinity of a known prehistoric site (Hemmings 1970:50). The third, 38 Ab 15, is near Carter Island on the upper Savannah River, and it too is associated with a prehistoric site in the immediate vicinity. A 300 foot-long irregular wall of boulders contains two V-shaped alignments near the center of the feature.
Logs incorporated into the feature were tentatively radiocarbon dated to ca. A.D. 1400 , with a rebuilding episode around 1770 (presumably by European colonists) (Hemmings 1970:50; Hemmings 1973:44). It is crawlers, clear that stone weirs in the Tallapoosa River are of prehistoric affiliation (Hubbert and Wright 1987). There, Hubbert and Wright (1987:8,51) discovered over 50 stone weirs, mostly located on shoals. Four types were distinguished: Single V, Double V, Triple V, and straight (Hubbert and Wright 1978:59-61) (Figures 7 and 8). They were deemed to be of prehistoric origin, based on criteria which included: 1) a lack of historic settlement due to inaccessibility (except by canoe) (Hubbert and Wright 1978:ix); 2) a large number of research proposal sample prehistoric sites, whose locations were very bly correlated with the locations of weirs (Hubbert and Wright 1978:96); and 3) a lack of exploitable resources aside from help on dissertation fish (Hubbert and Wright 1978:95). Two interesting types of feature accompanied these weirs. Research Introduction Sample! The first was the presence of beds of burned rocks at sites associated with weirs. Help On Dissertation! These features were interpreted as the research proposal sample locations of thesis drying racks for the preservation of fish (Hubbert and Wright 1978:99) . The second type of research proposal sample feature consisted of piles of rocks of the type utilized in the construction of the weirs.
Hubbert and Wright (1978:41) claim that these features could represent the raw materials from business which the weirs were constructed. Based on analysis of the proposal sample nearby sites, these weirs are said to thesis on web crawlers date back to the Middle Archaic, with the associated sites being occupied for only brief periods (Hubbert and research proposal introduction Wright 1978:99-100). In the only early account describing Native American weir use in Tennessee, Lieutenant Henry Timberlake, in help on dissertation his memoirs (1756-1765), recounted the use of research a V-shaped weir. He did not describe the materials used (Williams 1927:69). An extensive survey in the great essay 1985 of large stretches of the Tellico and Little Tennessee Rivers revealed that no weirs were extant (Chapman 1985). Myer (1928:26,782) and Swanton (1946:335) identified V-shaped stone weirs in the Tennessee River in Knox County, and in the Obey River (near the proposal sample mouth of Eagle Creek) in Pickett County. Stone weirs in the lower Holston River were firmly dated to the nineteenth century (Cobb 1978).
Chapman documented 37 stone weirs were in a 45 mile stretch of the Etowah River between Cartersville and the great gatsby essay Rome, but admitted that a number are historic (Chapman 1975:6). They consist of four basic shapes: curved, V-shaped (with one or more openings), L shaped (with openings), and irregularly shaped (Chapman 1975:8). Chapman (1975:6-7) describes a dichotomy between weirs utilizing large rocks and research introduction sample those with small. Embedded historic materials appear to be associated solely with the problem solution essays school former. George Henry Loskiel described a V-shaped stone weir in use by proposal introduction Native Americans in 1794: (T)he Indians run a dam of stones across the stream, where its depth will admit of it, not in a straight line, but in two parts verging towards each other in an angle. An opening is left in help on dissertation the middle for the water to run off. At this opening they place a large box, the bottom of which is research sample, full of holes (Jones 1873:332-3). The only reference regarding weirs in solution essays middle school Kentucky is mention of proposal introduction a stone weir in Bourbon County. A more exact location and description are unavailable (Funkhouser and Webb 1932). Only a single weir is known from this state, the business plan Sturdivant Fishweir, in the Homochitto River in Amite County. This feature was the site of extensive archaeological investigation, and is the best preserved weir of its type (Connaway 1982).
It consisted of rows of stakes (314 were recovered, most of research introduction Yellow Pine), clearly worked with stone tools, which were interwoven with split cane mats. The weir is in the shape of a V, with a gap at the apex. Solution Middle School! Parallel rows of stakes attest to episodes of rebuilding, and the stakes were radiocarbon dated to the Late Mississippian/early Protohistoric period (Connaway 1982:138-152) . A number of sixteenth-century accounts describe the use of tidal weirs on the Atlantic and research proposal introduction Gulf coasts of Florida. The earliest such account is probably that of Garcilaso. He described what apparently was a stone tidal weir at Tampa Bay utilized to catch rays (Swanton 1946:333). Jean Ribault and Sir John Hawkins described the use of stake weirs in the 1560's (Larson 1980:121; Connaway 1982:159).
Ribault noted that the weirs were built in the water with great reeds, so well and cunningly set together after the fashion of a labyrinth, with many turns and crooks (Connaway 1982:159). Thesis! Laudonnière described these same weirs as inclosures, made of reeds, and framed in the fashion of a labyrinth, or maze. Proposal! (Laudonnière 1869:180). They are depicted in Le Moyne's paintings, which date to the 1560's (Lorant 1946:41) (Figures 9 and 10), but none of these weirs are reported to be extant. There appears to be little, if any, correlation between weir design and geographic province. Tidal weirs made of stakes are known from conventionality Canada to Florida, and other stake weirs are known from Maine to Mississippi. Stone weirs in riverine settings, most often of the V-shaped variety, are known from nearly every state from research proposal New York to Georgia. Tidal weirs of stone are reported from Florida only, but there is an ambiguous reference to tidal weirs in the Delaware River (in Pennsylvania) which may also be of stone. The use of tidal weirs is relatively straightforward.
There is general agreement among all accounts that a barrier is positioned so as to trap fish behind the falling tide (Rostlund 1952:101). Unfortunately, there are no detailed descriptions of tidal weirs. Thesis On Web Crawlers! However, early engravings and paintings depict either straight walls perpendicular to the shoreline, or labyrinthine structures. Based on these depictions, tidal weirs seem to have operated in a passive fashion. Descriptions of the use of riverine weirs vary remarkably, and are often times contradictory. Most agree that these weirs are generally associated with the exploi-tation of anadromous and catadromous fish (Schalk 1977:232). Discussions of riverine weirs place great emphasis on their operation during spawning runs, generally in the spring and summer along the Atlantic (see, for example, Bakeless 1961:223,262; Brumbach 1986:42; Beverley 1705:146). Many stone weirs throughout eastern North America are described as having openings for traps, invariably at the downstream-pointing apexes (for example, Connaway 1982:156; Rostlund 1952:170; Myer 1928:782; Chapman 1975:8). This is odd, as fish traveling upstream would be diverted by proposal sample the stone walls to the sides of the conventionality river, not to the openings in the center. In fact, there are accounts of the use of research introduction sample weirs to capture fish as they traveled downstream (aside from eels, which migrate downstream to spawn) in both active and passive manners. Beverley, in gatsby essay american a quote related previously, described the passive operation of such a weir, whereby the Current carries the Fish, and wedges them so fast, that they cannot possibly return (Beverley 1705:148).
The operation of weirs in this fashion is known historically from southeast Alaska (Moss and Erlandson 1990:144). Research Introduction! More common are descriptions whereby fish are driven into the apex of V-shaped weirs through agitation of the water upstream (Williams 1927:69; Chapman 1975:3). Historic weirs served to capture fish traveling both upstream and downstream (Reed 1979), and it is clear that native Americans made use of this method in essays school some places (Wheeler and Jones 1989:168). For example, the Jesuit missionary Dablon described the capture of both anadromous and sample catadromous species with the same weirs in crawlers New York (Brumbach 1986:40). Similarly, the Micmac would leave an opening in which they place a bag net so arranged that fish run into it. In autumn, when the introduction sample fish descend, the opening of the bag is in the other direction (Rostlund 1952:170). Johnston and Cassavoy (1978:704) allege that the Atherley Narrows weirs appear to be oriented to capture fish migrating upstream, and indeed, fish remains are found at local sites; however, previously cited contact-era accounts attest that the most important species caught there was eel, which migrate downstream to spawn. It is evident that, despite a focus on the use of on web crawlers weirs to capture anadromous fish passively on their upstream migrations, riverine weirs were employed to capture fish traveling downstream as well, and research proposal introduction furthermore were employed in an active fashion. All of the described methods of utilization result in problem solution essays middle catches of introduction substantial amounts of fish. Since weirs were used throughout the entire eastern seaboard of North America, the widespread exploitation of fish certainly carries implications for subsistence patterns throughout the region.
Certain other practices related to subsistence are implied as well. Weirs are designed to capture fish in large numbers. Since fish spoil very rapidly, a knowledge of preservation is an essential accompaniament to weir utilization. The extensive use of essay dream weirs in eastern North America indicates that a knowledge of research proposal introduction sample preservation was widespread throughout this region (Schalk 1977:232). Wheeler and Jones (1989:28) characterize the preservation of fish as a relatively easy task, involving drying, salting, smoking, fermenting, or a combination of these. However, the thesis exact application of research proposal these methods was diverse, and may have been species and/or size specific (Whyte 1988:115).
A great diversity of problem middle specific methods was employed across the varying regions and among different groups in eastern North America. Rostlund (1952:195-6) observes that the methods known to be in proposal use at the time of European contact included drying, presumably by fire (among the Delaware, Chitimacha, and Atapaka, and in the St. Lawrence River and Apalachee Bay areas), sun-drying (along the lower Hudson River), fire-drying (in Virginia), a combination of business pro reviews sun-drying and smoking (among the Hurons and Narraganset), smoking alone (among the Natchez, and among other groups in the Roanoke Islands and South Carolina mainland), drying, smoking, and freezing (among the Ojibwa), and research sample a combination of drying and problem solution salting (among the Yuchi). There are isolated examples of more unusual methods of introduction preservation. The Hurons, Mohawk, and other Iroquoian tribes ate powdered dried fish (Rostlund 1952:199). The Hurons also prepared sagamite, or spoiled fish, apparently preserved through natural fermentation (Brumbach 1978:254). Internal Audit Manager! Fish preserves, whereby live fish were impounded in artificial canals and ponds, are known from DeSoto's expeditions (Jones 1873:325-6). And one site near the Delaware River in New Jersey (in the vicinity of Trenton) is interpreted as the location of a vast complex for rendering fish oil (Louis Berger and Associates, Inc. 1987:VIII-5) . Length of occupation of weir sites. The availability of large quantities of fish in research proposal introduction a restricted area increases the opportunity for sedentism (Schalk 1977:232).
In addition, the chores (setup and maintenance of facilities, processing of catch, etc.) necessitated by help weir use require a certain level of (at least seasonal) sedentism (Avery 1975:113; Brumbach 1986:35,37; Larson 1980:125; Schalk 1977:232). We do not yet have the proposal introduction information to describe typical weir use, but it is still possible to help reconstruct the potential minimal time during which a weir site may have been occupied. The most important variable for this reconstruction is the proposal introduction availability of fish (Brumbach 1986:35). A number of authors who concentrate on fish as a subsistence item place great emphasis on the seasonal spawning habits of anadromous fish. This is help, no doubt due to the convergence of proposal sample considerable numbers of large fish in a short time-span, which makes this food resource easily obtainable in a small area and over a short period of time (Fisher 1983:36; Schalk 1977:213; Wheeler and Jones 1989:5). In preceding discussion, I noted that weirs were not employed exclusively or predominantly for capturing anadromous species during their upstream migrations.
However, anadromous fish are a qualitatively superior food resource during their spawning runs, at problem solution essays, which time their fat reserves are highest (Brumbach 1986:36). The high fat content of anadromous species rendered them attractive, and sometimes necessary, to a diet which was likely low in fat during the winter in some regions, particularly the Northeast (Speth and Spielmann 1983:2). The specific mechanisms regulating anadromous spawning are not yet completely understood, particularly regarding the proposal introduction sample environmental conditions which determine the timing of the great gatsby american dream their runs. There are two predominant schools of thought regarding the mechanisms governing spawning runs: The first points to water temperature as the research sample overriding factor initiating spawning runs (Schalk 1977). On Web! An illustrative example is the spawning habits of the shad (Alosa spp.), which.
adhere to similar temperature regimes by following the isotherms or thermal zones in the range of research introduction sample 13? to 18? C. By following these zones the fish arrive at the rivers at the proper time for plan, migration and spawning: In their southern range the shad enter the St. Johns River in Florida in January when water temperature has cooled to around 15?C. Further north, the spawning runs occur progressively later in the year when the waters have warmed adequately . (Brumbach 1978:224) Water temperature is not necessarily determined solely by drops in ambient temperature due to proposal sample the season. Observations from California demonstrate that spawning runs may be initiated by water cooled both in the autumn (through ambient temperature change) and spring (due to melting snow from nearby mountains) (Swezey and Heizer 1984:970). This appears to be the thesis case only in larger rivers (Swezey and Heizer 1984:971-2). The alternate explanation of anadromous migrations is that they are regulated by research sample the volumetric flow of water from the rivers in which anadromous fish spawn (Banks 1969). Although the thesis exact reasons for this are not clear, Banks claims that many factors like water and air temperature, turbidity, atmospheric pressure, cloud cover, pH and variations in proposal concentrations of many dissolved ions are associated with the rate of water discharge (Banks 1969:86). This phenomenon was confirmed through a number of controlled experiments which were successful regardless of water temperature, leading Banks (1969:120) to conventionality thesis conclude that (t)he evidence of the influence of introduction temperature on upstream migration is both conflicting and inconclusive.
He notes, though, that this phenomenon may apply only to smaller streams, and conventionality that (e)arly in the season, temperature may be the factor controlling migration (Banks 1969:107,115). Regardless of the factor initiating spawning runs, it is clear that different species spawn at different times of the year; therefore, the higher the diversity of species present, the greater the time period during which fish can be exploited in research proposal introduction abundance (Schalk 1977:216,241). Essay American Dream! A number of factors influence species diversity; diversity is more restricted in proposal sample northerly latitudes, and is greatest south of thesis 45. Research! The size and section of help a river also bly influence species diversity. Proposal Sample! Larger rivers support greater numbers of species, their lower sections being the most productive. Surrounding topography as well plays a part in diversity.
Rivers in estuary or upwelling zones are most suitable, especially when they are associated with wide continental shelves at the coast (Schalk 1977:218,241; Perlman 1980:262-3). It would do well at pro reviews, this point to look at the actual observed availability and exploitation of fish on a regional basis to add to the theoretical knowledge explicated above. As previously pointed out, the contemporary situation has been compromised too greatly for direct comparison with the prehistoric period. Research derived from research proposal contemporary studies is cited with the understanding that prehistoric availability either met or exceeded modern yields, and when possible, contact-era and other historic accounts are cited for reconstructing past availability. Each of the species discussed below is known (through either contact-era accounts or archaeological investigation) to crawlers have been exploited by various native American groups. Judging by numerous contact accounts, fish were available throughout most of the year from the Great Lakes/Finger Lakes to the Canadian Maritime provinces. These accounts tend to be the very early accounts of Jesuit missionary and research proposal sample pioneer explorers in solution school the region. Proposal Sample! Pierre Biard, a Jesuit missionary near present-day Annapolis, Nova Scotia, wrote in 1616: In the middle of March, fish begin to spawn, and to come up from the sea into certain streams, often so abundantly that everything swarms with them.
Any one who has not seen it could scarcely believe it, you cannot put your hand into the water, without encountering them. Solution School! (Brumbach 1986:42) From the month of research proposal sample May up to the middle of September, they are free from conventionality all anxiety about their food; for research, the cod are upon the coast, and all kinds of fish and shellfish. In the middle of problem solution middle school September (they) withdraw from the sea, beyond the reach of the research tide, to the little rivers, where the help eels spawn, of which they lay in a supply; they are good and fat. (Snow 1980:43) Fish continued to be available through the fall (Johnston and Cassavoy 1978:707), during which time Samuel Champlain observed a group of Iroquois fishing (in October) (Brumbach 1978:219). Because of the diversity of species, fish are available year-round in this region, and at least one group, the research introduction Huron, are known to have exploited this resource throughout the manager letter entire year (Heidenreich 1971:208). We have fewer early descriptions from New England from which to reconstruct subsistence patterns. We know, based on descriptions provided by the Plymouth colonists, that Native Americans fished for alewife in April and eels in September in Massachusetts (Bakeless 1961:22-3). Research Proposal! Sturgeon were also plentiful in that state, and essay were exploited during their spawning runs in the Spring (Barber 1980:107). Other species which still make spring spawning runs in research introduction New England to this day include the shad and salmon (Brumbach 1986: 47,60). Of course, freshwater species are also available; the cover Plymouth colonists noted that bass fishing was practiced in the summer in research proposal sample the vicinity of internal manager letter Rhode Island (Heath 1963:63).
Contact-era sources from the Middle Atlantic region which describe native fishing with any detail are almost nonexistent. Research Introduction! Based on contemporary studies of known native species and a few historic descriptions, however, we may infer that fish were widely available throughout the year. Van der Donck, describing Native Americans fishing on the lower Hudson, alluded to this in an inexact fashion when he wrote: First in plan the fishing season they caught many shad. Later they caught striped bass. Later still they caught the drums. Research Sample! For those fishes succeeded each other in thesis their seasons. There are also carp, snook, forrels, pike, trout, suckers, thickheads, eels, palings, brickens, and lampreys. (Van der Donck 1656:54) A number of anadromous species were available in this region, including sturgeon, herring, alewives, shad, and eel, most of research sample which made significant spawning runs beginning in the spring and were available through the summer (Brumbach 1978:229-234; Brumbach 1986:50-1). Essay American Dream! In addition, striped bass were available throughout the year in the lower Hudson River and its tributaries, as were numerous freshwater (non-anadromous) species (Brumbach 1978:20,233). Similarly, two species of research sample sturgeon (Acipenser brevirostrum and A. oxyrhyncus, also known as A. sturio) were available in the Delaware and Hudson Rivers year-round (Brumbach 1978:226).
Detailed contact-era and early historic accounts of on web native fishing practices are similarly lacking for southeastern North America, but as with the Middle Atlantic region, contemporary studies of non-introduced species can aid us in reconstructing the prehistoric availability of fish. Previously mentioned anadromous species (especially the sturgeon, herring, and shad) were all procurable beginning in the spring, and were certainly exploited (Brumbach 1978:227; Larson 1980:112-3; Brumbach 1986:47; Hakluyt 1907:182; Jones 1873:324). Because of the proposal introduction topography and species diversity, anadromous fish were accessible for an extended period of time (Schalk 1977:216,241; Perlman 1980:262-3). In addition, non-anadromous species, both freshwater and ocean species, were available and exploited throughout the rest of the year (Chapman 1975:2; Larson 1980:81-95,123; Hakluyt 1907:182; Whyte 1988:115). Help On Dissertation! Early historic accounts attest to winter fishing in Florida (Bennett 1975:15). The role of fish in introduction sample reconstructing prehistoric subsistence and settlement patterns. In the Northeast, hunting, gathering and fishing constituted the primary subsistence activities throughout nearly all of prehistory. This basic pattern persisted until the Late Woodland period, at which time plant domestication became widespread (Brumbach 1978:163). Excluding the `Maritime Archaic Tradition' on the east coast of Labrador, the earliest known fishing on a large scale in the Northeast was during the `Brewerton Phase' in manager the Late Archaic in central and northern New York Sate. However, there is little archaeological evidence for the Early and Middle Archaic periods (Funk 1983:317,323).
The Late Archaic period is generally characterized by the existence of hunting/fishing stations in the spring and summer, with settlements relocating further inland, where hunting predominated, during the fall and introduction winter (Funk 1983; Kraft and Mounier 1982:61; Brumbach 1978:164). Overall, evidence for fishing is the great gatsby essay, slight for proposal sample, both this period and the succeeding Transitional Phase (Funk 1983:331-332). Sites throughout the Archaic are usually small, with larger sites being interpreted as evidence of repeated seasonal use (Ritchie 1956:74). Gatsby Essay American Dream! The Early and Middle Woodland are similarly characterized by small, seasonal camps, situated near waterways in the warmer months and research introduction further inland during the fall and winter (Funk 1983:337,344; Williams and Thomas 1982:122). Overall, the pro reviews archaeological literature fails to emphasize fishing as an important resource. However, the data from introduction individual site reports, as well as information regarding general settlement trends, hint at the importance of fish in the diet of prehistoric North Americans. Thesis Crawlers! Interestingly, most major sites appear to be located adjacent to waterways where considerable quantities of fish are attainable (Brumbach 1978:164; Bradley 1987:15; Trigger 1978:324), and proposal introduction many are situated exactly at business, those points most conducive to fishing (Brumbach 1986:37).
Sites along the research proposal sample Charles River in Massachusetts date progressively earlier as one moves downstream. Dincauze (1973:25) interprets this pattern as evidence that ideal fishing locations were the pro reviews basis for situating sites, and research sample that sites needed to be relocated upstream as post-glacial sea transgression caused suitable fishing stations to be located further inland. The Dougall Site, near the help on dissertation Atherley Narrows weirs, contains extensive evidence of being a provenance for fish exploitation. Cultural deposits at research, that site date from the Middle Woodland through the Late Woodland (Johnston and Cassavoy 1978:707). As was previously pointed out, the weirs themselves date back to the Late Archaic, as do those at Boylston Street. In fact, a few sites demonstrate evidence of large-scale fishing dating as far back as the Early Archaic and even Paleo-Indian periods (Gramly and Funk 1990:24) . Evidence for the role of fishing, as well as overall reconstructions of problem solution essays prehistoric subsistence and settlement patterns for research, the Southeast, are meager. This is especially true for the pre-Woodland periods. Most authors of regional overviews see subsistence and conventionality settlement hinging on seasonal migrations between areas offering differing resources throughout prehistory. When fishing is mentioned, it is seen as a short-term occupation (generally during the summer) (Jones 1873:324-325; Jenkins and Krause 1986:41; Hubbert and proposal introduction Wright 1987:99).
Sedentism in the Southeast preceded sedentism in the northeast, appearing by the Late Woodland period in thesis on web the interior River Valleys in (the) mid-South (Anderson and Garrow 1988:133-5). Most authors ascribe sedentism to the increased exploitation of plant and animal resources, primarily deer and nuts. Aquatic resources are occasionally mentioned as an element correlating with increased sedentism (Anderson and Garrow 1988:136,155). Still, a sedentary lifestyle did not become widespread until much later. In discussing the research proposal sample reasons for a lack of manager cover letter sedentism in this region, Jenkins and Krause (1986:119) point out: A continuing need for fresh meat and skins for blankets, robes, and clothing could not be. satisfied.
Nor could the local reserves of collectible non-nut foods be efficiently utilized. The local game animals and research collectible non-nut foods would soon be exhausted by business a fully settled population. Jenkins and research proposal Krause omit discussion of the many factors which could alleviate many of solution middle school these shortages, such as domestication of plants, the ritual or purposive regulation of resources , and research introduction sample a higher availability of resources (especially fish) than is cover, generally assumed. The importance of fish as a resource is well documented at some southeastern sites (e.g., Jenkins and Krause 1986:69), as is evidence of the research proposal sample exploitation of a great diversity of species (e.g., Whyte 1988:115). Seasonal availability of fish in the Southeast is the least constrained of all areas on the Atlantic seaboard, providing not only the pro reviews most diverse anadromous species, but also numerous freshwater and saltwater species, for which evidence of research proposal introduction prehistoric utilization is presented in section 126.96.36.199 (beginning on p. 51). In light of middle this evidence, and the fact that far more weirs are known from the Southeast than from the research proposal sample Northeast, it is clear that more research is needed before concluding that short-term seasonal occupation characterized the predominant modes of settlement and subsistence in this region . The use of manager letter weirs remains poorly understood despite the existence of numerous ethnographic descriptions of their use and the remains of a large number of extant weirs.
In addition, the implications of their use have yet to be fully incorporated into general reconstructions of subsistence and settlement patterns for the eastern seaboard of North America. The oversight of the importance of weirs stems in part from a lack of preservation in the archaeological record. The limitations imposed by proposal contemporary recovery techniques further exacerbate this problem. On Web! A shortage of available historic information further compound this difficulty. Underestimations of the importance of fish as a food resource contribute to our inadequate understandings. Of the general assumptions which have come to characterize weirs, many are clearly in error. Foremost among these is the assumption that weirs are only useful for short periods of research proposal sample time, i.e., seasonally. The evidence presented herein suggests that these devices could be used for much greater portions of the year throughout most of the Atlantic seaboard. Ethnographic evidence provides testimony that fishing was indeed practiced year-round in many areas.
Another characterization of weirs is that their primary importance is for passively obtaining anadromous fish during their upstream spawning runs. Numerous ethnographic descriptions suggest that they were quite often used in an active fashion, and descriptions of their layout suggest that fish were more often caught in stone weirs during downstream movements, rather than upstream. This applies not only to the capture of catadromous species (eels) during downstream spawning runs, but also to anadromous species in their post-spawning phase, and to non-anadromous species either swimming with the current or forced downstream by agitation of upstream waters. Flannery's characterization of weirs as `undiagnostic' (1939:17) appears to the great gatsby dream be correct. Weirs of two basic types (stake and stone) occur throughout the entire Atlantic region, and proposal introduction there are no observable regional differences in design. Stone weirs are usually V or W-shaped, with apexes always aligned downstream, and they occur almost exclusively in american riverine settings.
Stake weirs occur in both riverine and estuarine/coastal areas, but too few survive from research proposal introduction sample which to draw firm conclusions regarding similarities and differences in design. Without a way of thesis dating stake weirs, it is difficult as well to determine whether there are specific temporal design characteristics. The decision to use weirs affected settlement and subsistence strategies. Weir use (and the introduction sample accompanying responsibilities ancillary to their use, such as weir set-up/maintenance and fish processing) indicates at least semi-sedentary settlement. Since large catches are easily obtained through weir use, and weir use was widespread, it follows that fish were exploited on a large scale across much of eastern North America at least as far back as the Late Archaic. The lack of internal audit manager archaeological evidence attesting to aquatic resource procurement does not necessarily reflect a concomitant deficiency in the availability or exploitation of this particular resource.
Because weirs are known from research proposal introduction throughout the on web crawlers Atlantic coast, there is potentially a need for an overall re-evaluation of the general subsistence and settlement patterns, throughout the entire prehistoric period, for this immense area. This evaluation can only introduction sample, be accomplished if more light is solution middle school, shed on research sample the nature of the construction and use of weirs and their temporal affiliation. Business Plan! In addition, a more thorough understanding of aquatic resource procurement and exploitation is proposal sample, required. The latter is a problem which will likely be better understood as archaeological recovery techniques improve. The primary hindrance in this realm stems from thesis on web crawlers a lack of expertise in research recovering and analyzing the osteological remains of aquatic species, a situation which seems to be improving (Wheeler and Jones 1989). In addition to concentrating on aquatic resources in general, archaeological sites which appear to be linked to weir use in particular need to internal manager be examined, with emphasis placed on the retrieval and analysis of remains at a very small scale (to enhance the research recovery of fish bones, scales, etc.). Weirs themselves are seldom the focus of archaeological investigation. Few weirs have been sketched, and conventionality fewer still have been accurately mapped. Since weirs are more highly subjected to sample natural and human destruction than subsurface archaeological sites, the opportunity to examine them is quickly vanishing. Hopefully, a comprehensive program to accurately locate, sketch, and map these features will commence in the near future.
Granted, there are logistical difficulties involved, considering that almost all of these structures are either partially or completely submerged; however, present technology (including aerial survey and the use of sonar for underwater mapping) should be sufficient to accomplish the middle school task. From New England: Yea, when a heape of stones is reared up against [the alewives during their spawning runs] a foot high above the water, they leape and tumble over introduction, and will not be beaten back with cudgels. (Bakeless 1961:223; attributed to Puritan settlers.) [T]he greate smelts passe up [the Smelt River, near Plymouth, Massachusetts] to crawlers spawne likewise in troupes innumerable, which with a scoupe, or a boule, or a peece of research introduction barke, a man may cast upon plan pro reviews, the bank. ( ibid. ; attributed to colonist John Pory.) [D]uring one month the fish ascend the introduction river in so great numbers that a man could fill fifty thousand barrels with them in a day, if he could be equal to that work. Conventionality! (Brumbach 1986:42; from the 1723 account of Râle;, a Jesuit missionary to the Abenaki.) From the Middle Atlantic: There are more records of shad [in the Susquehanna River] than of anything else, though there must have been just as many fish of other kinds. Two thousand shad were taken in a single night at Wyalusing, Pennsylvania, but that was nothing compared with the celebrated `widow's haul' on the North Branch, which brought in ten thousand at once. (Bakeless 1961:262; describing the travels of Conrad Weiser, a Moravian missionary in research proposal sample the early 18th century.) The Indians come up this river in canoes to fish, because it is one of the richest fisheries they have. Business Pro Reviews! (De Yoe 1961; quoting Jasper Danckaerts, a Labadist missionary in the vicinity of the lower Hudson River in research sample March, 1680.) From the Southeast: In the thesis crawlers Spring of the Year, Herrings come up in such abundance into their Brooks and Foards, to spawn, that it is almost impossible to ride through, without treading on them. Introduction! Thence it is, at this Time of the Year, the help Freshes of the Rivers, like that of the Broadruck, stink of Fish. (Beverley 1705:146; based on research proposal introduction late seventeenth century observations.) For quotes attesting to the availability and exploitation of fish on the great gatsby essay dream a grand scale in Canada, see the quotes in the section entitled, Observed availability . 2. Anadromous fish are those which migrate upstream from the sea to spawn; conversely, catadromous fish (primarily eels) are those which swim from lakes, rivers and streams out to sea to spawn (McClane 1978). 5. For an research example that fishing is not considered to be an aspect of hunting, see Lee Devore's classic Man the Hunter (1968), which is typical in its emphasis on hunting land-animals, to on dissertation the exclusion of aquatic resources.
6. It is not necessary that the entire device be permanent, but rather that significant portions remain in place. For example, it was noted in research introduction Alaska that the native Salish employed framework weirs from year to year which utilized removable latticework sections (Moss Erlandson 1990:144). Ethnographic descriptions presented later in this thesis often make mention of removable traps, such as boxes, from stone weirs in riverine settings. 7. Conventionality Thesis! Larson (1980:123) claims that, for this reason, tidal weirs in the Southeastern U.S. only existed at Cape Hatteras, North Carolina and in Florida, but he is clearly unaware of the description (to be related later) by Beverley of introduction sample a tidal trap in Virginia. In addition, it is not at all clear that the coastal weirs in use in pro reviews North Carolina were tidal traps, as they were built perpendicular to the shore ( ibid. p.120; discussion of which is also included later in this thesis). 8. For example, weirs are reported from southeast Alaska which consist of rows of sharp stakes, upon proposal, which salmon impale themselves when attempting to business hurdle these obstructions during spawning runs (Moss Erlandson 1990:143-4).
9. These are the (presumably uncorrected) radiocarbon dates listed in Table 1 on page 704: 4560 ± 115 B.P. (2610 B.C.) 4430 ± 95 B.P. (2480 B.C.) 4500 ± 95 B.P. (2550 B.C.) 4375 ± 95 B.P. (2425 B.C.) 10. The following (presumably uncorrected) dates are reported by Dincauze (1973:29): 3851 ± 390 B.P. [1901 B.C.] 4500 ± 130 B.P. [2550 B.C.] 4450 ± 130 B.P. [2500 B.C.] 4860 ± 130 B.P. Introduction! [2910 B.P.] 11. They are as follows (Skinner Schrabisch 1913): 12. This is the only stone weir confirmed to be extant in northeastern North America. It is located approximately 300 yards north of the Fair Lawn Avenue/Fifth Avenue bridge between the City of Paterson and the Borough of Fair Lawn.
13. Help! Although direct proof of their affiliation with prehistoric peoples does not exist, overwhelming evidence suggests that these weirs predate European colonization in the area. The area was called Sloterdam by research proposal the earliest (Dutch) settlers there. The word means Sluice Dam, and describes the resemblance of the weirs to vaguely similar-looking structures in Holland (Rogers 1960; Bergen County Office of Cultural and Historic Affairs 1983). The earliest known written occurrence of the term is in 1708 (Rogers 1960:12), which indicates that the term was probably in use prior to the beginning of the thesis eighteenth century, at which time European settlement in the area was extremely sparse. By the latter part of the century, use of the term was in decline. A 1764 Road Return notes that the Road of Slotterdam, a thoroughfare traversing the length of the Passaic River on its eastern side, was by that time now known as River Road (Bergen County Road Returns, Folder B9). The appearance of the term on Erskine's maps (1778-9) is one of the latest known uses (Smullen 1921). Another reason to believe that the weirs predate European settlement is the total lack of historical reference to them.
The area was thinly populated by proposal Dutch farmers through the middle nineteenth century, and there is plan pro reviews, no mention in historic records of research fish as a resource in the great gatsby essay dream this area during the colonial period. Research Introduction Sample! The only known historic use of fish weirs in the entire state before 1800 was by John Read, an agriculturalist from Burlington (far to the south). In 1763 he began a commercial fishing operation on conventionality the Delaware River, employing weirs constructed of research introduction sample mats and help on dissertation nets which in research proposal sample no way resembled the stone weirs found in the Passaic (Woodward 1941:399-400). 14. Manager Cover Letter! Part of the evidence for this claim derives from the proposal introduction sample fact that some of the problem weirs are deep underwater (Strandberg Tomlinson 1969:312), and it is reported that one of them was in use in 1724, when a Mr. William Nelson, the first white settler, visited the area (Strandberg 1962:478). 15.
The fourth, known as Fishdam Ford, is research sample, located on the Broad River near the town of Carlisle. Problem School! No known description of this features exists. 16. Only two dates were procured; the first was 545 ± 100 B.P., the second 180 ± 80 B.P. (Hemmings 1973:44). 17. Interestingly, Charles Cobb (personal communication) has observed similar features in association with natural shoals in the Georgia. 18. Research! The dates are as follows [Connaway 1982:152]: 470 $± 65 B.P. [A.D.
1480] 490 $± 65 B.P. [A.D. 1460] 320 $± 60 B.P. On Dissertation! [A.D. 1630] 385 $± 60 B.P. [A.D. Introduction! 1565] 320 $± 80 B.P. [A.D. 1630] 360 $± 60 B.P. [A.D. 1590] 265 $± 60 B.P. [A.D. 1685] 370 $± 55 B.P. [A.D. 1580] 355 $± 80 B.P. [A.D. 1595]
19. The unique interpretation of this site (the Trenton Complex, Area B ) is based on 1) the problem solution presence of anadromous fish (indirectly inferred from high levels of strontium and mercury in the soil); 2) a lack of sample other exploitable resources in gatsby dream the vicinity; 3) the presence of research boiling-stone heaps as a predominant feature; and audit manager letter 4) analogy with Northwest Coast practices (Louis Berger Associates, Inc. 1987). 20. This raises an interesting point: if Florida's waters need to cool, and northerly waters need to warm up, this seems to imply that there is there a point in between where the proper temperature for spawning exists year-round. 21. Examples include the Kipp Island site in central New York, where freshwater fish made up the research bulk of faunal remains (Trigger 1978:324); the Buswell site in the lower Merrimack Valley in conventionality thesis Massachusetts, where a nearly continuous 7,000 year occupation (from Middle Archaic through Late Woodland) is interpreted as a settlement used for the exploitation of spawning anadromous fish, based on its unique topography, and faunal and artifact analyses (Barber 1980:97); and the Neville site, at Amoskeag, New Hampshire, where fish were being exploited nearly continuously from 8,000 B.P. onward (Dincauze 1976). 22. See Swezey Heizer 1984 pp. 981 and 985 for proposal sample, examples of the regulation of middle school anadromous resources in Northern California. 23.
At least one example of a semi-sedentary site based on the exploitation of fish is known from contact-era accounts: Early Spanish chroniclers, including Garcilaso de la Vega, noted that in the town of introduction Hirihigua (also known as Ucita), a semi-sedentary site in or near Tampa Bay, Florida, little or no maize was available, but fish were an important resource, and conventionality thesis weirs were heavily utilized (Larson 1985:125). Avery, G., 1975: Discussion and use of tidal fish-traps. South African Arch. Bull. 30:105-113. Bakeless, John, 1961: America As Seen by its First Explorers: The Eyes of Discovery. Dover Pubs., New York. Banks, J.W., 1969: A review of the literature on the upstream migration of adult salmonoids. J. Fish Biol. 1:85-136.
Barber, Russell J., 1980: Post-pleistocene anadromous fish exploitation at the Buswell site, northeastern Massachusetts. In Early and Middle Archaic Cultures in the Northeast (D.R. Starbuck and research C.E. Bolian, eds.). Occ. Pubs. in Northeastern Anthro. No. 7, Franklin Pierce College, Rindge, NH, pp. 97-113. Beauchamp, William M., 1900: Aboriginal Occupation of New York. Bulletin of the New York State Museum 32(7), University of the State New York, Albany.
Beauchamp, William M., 1905: Aboriginal Use of Wood in New York. N.Y. State Mus. Bull. #89, pp. 87-272. Conventionality! New York State Education Dept., Albany. Bennett, Charles E., ed., 1975: Three Voyages: René Laudonnière . Univ. Presses of Florida, Gainesville.
Benson, Adolph B., ed., 1964: Peter Kalm's Travels in North America: The English Version of 1770 (Vol. II). Dover Pubs., Inc., New York. Bergen County Office of Cultural and Historic Affairs, 198/3: Bergen County Historic Sites Survey, Borough of Oakland. Bergen County Office of Cultural and Historic Affairs, Hackensack, NJ. Beverley, Robert, 1705 : The History and Present State of Virginia, in Four Parts. Univ. Research Proposal Introduction! No. Carolina Press, Chapel Hill. Brinkhuizen, D.C. and A.T. Clason, eds., 1983: Some notes on recent and pre- and protohistoric fishing gear from business northwestern Europe.
Paleohistoria 25:7-53. Brumbach, Hetty Jo, 1978: Middle Woodland Fishing Economics: The Upper Hudson River Drainage. Ph.D. dissertation, State Univ. of New York at Albany. Brumbach, Hetty Jo, 1986: Anadromous Fish and Fishing: A Synthesis of Data from the Hudson River Drainage. Man in the Northeast 32:35-66. Brydon, Norman F., 1974: The Passaic River - Past, Present, Future.
Rutgers Univ. Press, New Brunswick, NJ. Bushnell, David I., 1930: The five Monacan towns in Virginia, 1607. Smithson. Misc. Coll. 82(12). Bushnell, David I., 1935: The Manahoac tribes in Virginia, 1608.
Smithson. Proposal Introduction Sample! Misc. Coll. 94(8). Chapman, James H., 1975: A Preliminary Report of Aboriginal Fish-Weirs in the Southeast. Unpublished MS, Georgia State University, 27 May 1975. Chapman, Jefferson, 1985: Tellico Archaeology.
Tennessee Valley Authority Publications in Anthropology No. Business Plan! 41, Univ. Tennessee Press, Knoxville. Cobb, James E., 1978: Historic fish traps on the lower Holston River. Tenn. Anthropologist 3(1):31-58.
Connaway, John M., 1982: Sturdivant Fishweir. Southeastern Arch. 1(2):138-163. De Yoe, Willard C., 1961: Looking Back in History - Bounty in Passaic River. Dincauze, Dena F., 1973: Prehistoric occupation of the Charles River estuary: a paleogeographic study. Arch. Soc. Conn.
Bull. 38:25-39. Dincauze, Dena F., 1976: The Neville site : 8,000 years at Amoskeag, Manchester, New Hampshire. Peabody Museum of Archaeology and research proposal introduction Ethnology, Harvard University, Cambridge, Mass. Emery, K.O and R.L Edwards, 1966: Archeaological potential of the Atlantic continental shelf. Am.
Antiq. 31(5):733-737. Fisher, Charles, 1983: Social Organization and conventionality thesis Change During the Early Horticultural Period in the Hudson River Valley. Ph.D. Dissertation, SUNY-Albany. Flannery, Regina, 1939: An Analysis of Coastal Algonkian Culture . Catholic Univ. Of America Anthropological Series, #7. Catholic Univ. Of America, Press, Washington, D.C. Funk, Robert E., 1983: The Northeastern U.S.
In Ancient North Americans (J.D. Jennings, ed.). W.H. Research Sample! Freeman and Co., New York, 302-371. Funkhouser, W.D. and the great gatsby essay american William S. Webb, 1932: Archaeological survey of Kentucky. Univ. Kentucky, Reports in Arch. and Anthro. Vol. 2. Godwin, Luke, 1988: Around the traps: a reappraisal of stone fishing weirs in northern New South Wales. Research Proposal! Arch. of Oceania 23:49-59.
Gramly, Richard M. and Robert E. Funk, 1990: What is known and not known about the essay dream human occupation of the Northeastern United States until 10,000 B.P. Arch. of Eastern No. Am. 18:5-31. Gravely, Richard P., Jr., 1973: Data Sheet for Proposed Mini-park on Smith River Adjacent to Frith Shopping Center on Route 220 South . (Unpub. MS).
Gravely, Richard P., Jr., n.d. Proposal Sample! : Private papers; copies in author's possession; provided by V. On Web! Steponaitis, Univ. North Carolina at Chapel Hill. Hakluyt, Richard, 1907: The principal navigations, voigas, traffiques and discoueries of the proposal sample English nation G. Bishop R. Newberies for help on dissertation, C. Barker, London. Hariot, Thomas, 1588 : brief and true report of the new found land of Virginia. Virginia: Four Personal Narratives. Arno Press, New York. Heath, Dwight B., ed., 1963: A Journal of the Pilgirms at Plymouth: Mourt's Relation. Corinth Books, New York. Heidenreich, Conrad E., 1971: Huronia: A History and Geography of the Huron Indians, 1600-1650. Research Proposal Introduction Sample! McLelland Stewart, Toronto. Hemmings, E. Thomas, 1970: Archaeological survey of the Trotters Shoals Reservoir area in South Carolina.
Inst. of gatsby american Arch. and Anthro., Univ. So. Carolina, Research Manuscript Series , vol. 3. Hemmings, E. Introduction Sample! Thomas, 1973: Update on help the Trotter's Shoals Reservoir. Notebook V(2), Inst. of research proposal introduction Arch. and Anthro., Univ. So. Carolina. Heusser, Albert H., 1923: Homes and Haunts of the Indians . Braen-Heusser, Paterson, N.J.
Holmes, W.H., 1896: Prehistoric textile art of eastern United States. Bur. On Dissertation! Am. Ethnol., Thirteenth Annual Report. Hubbert, Charles and Richard A. Wright, 1987: Lalakalka, the fishing place. J. Alabama Archaeol. 33(1). Jenkins, Ned and introduction sample Richard A. Krause, 1986: The Tom Bigby Watershed in Southeastern Prehistory.
Univ. Alabama Press. Johnson, Frederick, ed., 1949: The Boylston Street Fishweir II. Gatsby American! Papers of the Robert S. Peabody Foundation for research proposal introduction sample, Archaeology, Vol IV, Number 1, Andover, Mass. Johnson, Frederick, et al. , 1942: The Boylston Street Fishweir . Papers of the Robert S. Peabody Foundation for Archaeology, Vol. 2, Andover, Mass.
Johnston, Richard B. and Kenneth A. Cassavoy, 1978: The fishweirs at Atherley Narrows, Ontario. Audit Manager Cover! Am. Antiq. 43(4):697-709. Jones, Andrew K.G., 1986: Fish bone survival in the digestive systems of the pig, dog and man: some experiments. In Fish and Archaeology: Studies in Osteometry, Taphonomy, Seasonality and Fishing Methods . B.A.R. International Series 294, Oxford, pp. Research! 53-61. Jones, Charles C., 1973 : Antiquities of the Southern Indians, Particularly of the Georgia Tribes . Appleton and Co., New York.
Kraft, Herbert C., 1976: Archaeological and Historical Survey of the Proposed Right of Way for the Sanitary and Interceptor Sewer Lines, Borough of Oakland, Bergen County, New Jersey. Archaeological Research Center, Seton Hall University Museum, South Orange, NJ. Kraft, Herbert C., 1984: The northern Lenape in prehistory and early colonial times. In The Lenape Indian - A Symposium . (H.C. Kraft, ed.) Seton Hall Univ. Internal Manager! Museum, South Orange, N.J., 1-10.
Kraft, Herbert C. and Alan Mounier, 1982: The Archaic period in New Jersey (ca. 8000 B.P. - 1000 B.C.). In New Jersey's Archaeological Resources from the proposal introduction Paleo-Indian Period to the Present . (O. Chesler, ed.) Office of New Jersey Heritage, Trenton, 52-102. Langdon, Steve J., Douglas Reger, and Christopher Wooley, 1986: Using Aerial Photographs to Locate Intertidal Stone Fishing Structures in thesis the Prince of Wales Archipelago, Southeast Alaska. Alaska Division of proposal sample Geological and Geophysical Surveys, Public Data File 86-9, Anchorage. Larson, Lewis H., 1980: Aboriginal Subsistence Technology on business plan pro reviews the Southeast Coastal Plain During the Late Prehistoric Period.
Univ. Presses of Florida, Gainesville. Lee, R.B. and I. Devore, 1968: Man the Hunter. Aldine Press, Chicago. Lenik, Edward J., 1985: The Archaeology of Wayne.
Wayne Township Historical Commission, Wayne, N.J. Lorant, Stefan, editor, 1946: The New World: The First Pictures of America. Duell, Sloan and Pearce, New York. Louis Berger Associates, Inc., 1987: Area B (28 Me 1-B): Archaeological Data Recovery, I-295, and Wetlands Area Interchange (Trenton Complex Archaeology: Report 8). Louis Berger Associates, Inc., Cultural Resouce Group, East Orange, NJ. Mahaffy, John J., 1978: A typology and functional analysis of fish weir configuration, R.L.
Harris Reservoir. In Archaelogical Investigations in research proposal introduction sample the R.L. Harris Reservoir (C. The Great Gatsby American Dream! Hubbert, ed.), Appendix 5; MS on file, Office of research proposal Archaeological Research, Univ. Alabama. Marshall, Sydne B., 1983: Cultural Resources Reconnaissance, Ramapo River -- Oakland, Pompton Lakes and Wayne, New Jersey. U.S. Army Corps of Engineers, New York Division. McClane, A.J., ed., 1978: Field Guide to Freshwater Fishes of North America . Holt, Rinehart and Winston, New York.
Merriweather, Robert Lee, 1940: The expansion of South Carolina, 1729-1865. Conventionality! Southern Publication 194, Kingsport, Tenn. Moorehead, Warren K., 1931: The Merrimack Archaeological Survey. Peabody Museum, Salem, MA. Moss, Madonna L. and Jon M. Erlandson, 1990: Wood stake weirs and salmon fishing on the Northwest Coast: Evidence from southeast Alaska.
Can. J. Arch. 14:143-158. Myer, William E., 1928: Indian trails of the Southeast. Report of the Bureau of American Ethnology , 1919-24, pp. 727-857. Peck, Rodney M., 1977: Stone fish traps in the Upper Pee Dee River. The Chesopiean 15(1-2):2-8.
Perlman, Stephen M., 1980: An optimum diet model, coastal variability, and hunter-gatherer behavior. In Advances in Archaeological Method and research proposal sample Theory, Vol. 3 (M.B. Schiffer, ed.). Academic Press, New York, 257-310. Proctor, Mary A., 1930: The Indians of the thesis on web Winnipesaukee and Pemigewasset Valleys. Towne Robie, Pubs., Franklin, NH. Rau, Charles, 1885: Prehistoric fishing in Europe and North America. Smithson Contributions to research sample Knowledge 25:1-342. Rights, Douglas L., 1929: A Voyage Down the Yadkin-Great Peedee River . Winston-Salem, NC. Ritchie, William A., 1956: Prehistoric settlement patterns in northeastern North America.
In Prehistoric Settlement Patterns in middle school the New World (G.R. Willey, ed.). Wenner-Gren Foundation for Anthropological Research, Inc., New York, 72-80. Ritchie, William A., 1980: The Archaeology of research proposal New York State (revised ed.). Harbor Hill Books, Harrison, N.Y. Rogers, Robert Q., 1960: From Slooterdam to help on dissertation Fair Lawn . Thomas Jefferson Junior High School, Fair Lawn, N.J.
Rostlund, Erhard, 1952: Freshwater fish and fishing in native North America. Univ. Proposal! Calif. Pubs. in help Geog. Proposal! , Vol. 9. Schalk, Randall F., 1977: The structure of an anadromous fish resource.
In For Theory Building in Archaeology (L.R. Binford, ed.). Academic Press, San Francisco, 207-249. Shields, Wayne F., 1967: The Chariton River fish trap. Missouri Hist. Rev. 61(4):489-496.
Skinner, Alanson and Max Schrabisch, 1913: A Preliminary Report of the Archaeological Survey of the State of New Jersey . Essays Middle! MacCrellish and research proposal sample Quigley, Trenton. Smullen, Edward L., 1921: Surveys Done for His Excy General Washington by Robert Erskine 1778-1779. (retracing). Snow, Dean, 1980: The Archaeology of New England. Conventionality Thesis! Academic Press, New York. Speck, Frank G., Royal B. Hassrick and proposal introduction sample Edmund S. Carpenter, 1946:Rappahannock taking devices: traps, hunting and fishing. Joint Pubs. Help! , Mus. of the introduction Univ. Penn. and the Phila. Anthropol.
Soc., No. 1. Speth, John D. and business K.A. Spielmann, 1983: Energy source, protein metabolism, and research proposal introduction hunter-gatherer subsistence strategies. J. Anthropological Archaeology 2(1):1-31. Strandberg, Carl H., 1962: Ancient Indian Fishtraps in the Potomac River.
Photogrammetric Engineering 28(3):476-478. Strandberg, Carl H. and Ray Tomlinson, 1969: Photoarchaeological analysis of Potomac River fish traps. Am. Antiq. Business! 34:212-219.
Swanton, John R., 1946: The Indians of the proposal introduction southeastern United States. Bur. Am. Ethnol. Bulletin No. 137. Swezey, Sean L. and Robert F. Conventionality! Heizer, 1984: Ritual regulation of anadromous fish resources in proposal native California.
In The Fishing Cultures of the World - Studies in Ethnology, Cultural Ecology and Folklore, Vol. 2. Akadémiai Kiadó, Budapest. Thomas, Cyrus W., 1894: Report on the mound explorations of the Bureau of American Ethnology. Bur. Am. Ethnol., Twelfth Annual Report, 1890-1891, pp. 3-742. Trigger, Bruce G., ed., 1978: Handbook of North American Indians, Vol. 15 - Northeast. Smithsonian Institution, Washington, D.C. Van der Donck, Adriaen, 1656 : A Description of New Netherlands (ed. by thesis Thomas O'Donnell).
Syracuse Univ. Press, Syracuse, N.Y. Wheeler, Alwyne and Andrew K.G. Jones, 1989: Cambridge Manuals in Archaeology: Fishes. Cambridge Univ. Press, New York. Whyte, Thomas R., 1988: Fish and shellfish use in the Woodland Period on the Virginia Coast. J. Middle Atlantic Archaeol. 4:105-120. Williams, Lorraine E. and Ronald A. Proposal Introduction Sample! Thomas, 1982: The Early/Middle Woodland period in New Jersey (ca.
A.D. 1000-1600). In New Jersey's Archaeological Resources from the Paleo-Indian Period to the Present (O. Business Plan Pro Reviews! Chesler, ed.). Office of New Jersey Heritage, Trenton, 103-138. Williams, Samuel Cole, ed., 1927: Lieut.
Henry Timberlake's Memoirs, 1756-1765; with Annotations, Introduction, and Index. Wautauga Press, Johnson City, Tenn.
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Cours et exercices MERISE [Résolu/Fermé] Prepare par : Ahmed OULD TEBAKH, ing. Consultant en informatique. 05 decembre 2006. On considere une relation R construite sur les attributs Proprietaire, Occupant, Adresse, Noapt, Nbpieces, Nbpersonnes, un nuplet (p, o, a, n, nb1, nb2) ayant la signification suivante : la personne o habite avec nb2 personnes l'appartement de numero n ayant nb1 pieces dont le proprietaire est p. Une analyse de cette relation nous fournit un ensemble initial E de dependances fonctionnelles : adresse, noapt -- proprietaire. adresse, noapt -- occupant. adresse, noapt -- nbpieces. 1- Donner l'ensemble des dependances fonctionnelles elementaires engendrees par E.
2- Quelles sont les cles potentielles de R ? 3- R est elle en 3eme forme normale ? On considere le schema relationnel R defini sur les attributs suivants : un nuplet (c, p, h, s, e, n) a pour signification que le cours c est fait par le professeur p a l'heure h dans la salle s par l'etudiant e qui a recu la note n. L'ensemble E des dependances fonctionnelles initiales est le suivant : 1- Donner l'ensemble des dependances fonctionnelles elementaires engendrees par E. 2- Quelle est la cle de la relation R ? Montrer qu'elle est unique. 3- Quelle est la forme normale de la relation R ? Si elle n'est pas en 3FN proposer une decomposition en 3FN. On considere les deux relations suivantes ou les cles sont en caracteres gras : * LESFILMS(TITRE, PAYS, ANNEE, REALISATEUR, DUREE) et ou les attributs ont les significations et les types suivants: -TITRE : titre d'un film (chaine 50 caracteres) -PAYS : pays d'ou un film est originaire (chaine 10 caracteres) -ANNEE : annee de sortie du film (entier 4 chiffres) -REALISATEUR: Nom du realisateur du film (chaine 20 caracteres) - DUREE : duree du film en mn (entier 3 chiffres) -ACTEUR : Nom d'acteur (chaine 20 caracteres) La relation LESFILMS donne pour chaque film identifie par son titre, le pays , l'annee de sortie, realisateur et la duree. La relation LESACTEURS donne pour chaque film l'ensemble des principaux acteurs. A l'aide de l'algebre relationnelle exprimer les requetes suivantes:
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2- date de naissance de l'individu. 3- langues pratiquees par l'individu. 4- designation du diplome. 5- designation des centres d'interet (sport, musique ) a- schematiser le model conceptuel des donnees ? b- donner le model relationnel des donnees ? Pour les etudiants de ISET on proposal introduction sample utilise une base des donnees pour gerer les resultats de fin d’annee. Gatsby Essay Dream! Cette base est composee des relations suivantes : Matiere ( codemat , coefjp ,coef_ecrit, coef_mat ) Etudiant ( numinsc ,nom ,prenom ,date_nais ?tel ) Evaluation ( # code_mat, # num insc , note_exam) 1. Research Introduction! schematiser le model conceptuel des donnees ? 2. Business Pro Reviews! refaire le model relationnel des donnees ? 3. Research Introduction Sample! creer les tables en mode de creation ? 4. Internal Audit Cover! remplissez les tables par des informations arbitraires ? 5. Research Proposal Introduction! compter le nombre des etudiants qui sont inscrit ? 6. Plan Pro Reviews! quel est le nombre des matieres ? 7. Introduction! quel est le nombre des etudiants ayant une note d'examen superieur ou. 8. American! quels sont les etudiants qui n'ont pas la moyenne dans l'examen ? 9. Research Proposal Introduction! selectionner les etudiants qui sont passer l'examen ? 10. Audit Letter! donner les noms ,les prenoms des etudiants qui ont la moyenne dans. 11. Sample! les matieres qui ne sont pas evaluer ? 12. Audit Letter! selectionner le code du matiere ,sa coefficient de TP, sa coeff. Research! d'ecrit ? 13. Crawlers! refaire question 12 en selectionnant aussi le note de l'examen ? Schema 1 - MODELE CONCEPTUEL DES DONNEES.
2. Proposal Introduction! A partir de ce que l'on comprend du 1er schema, presentez un MCD corrige. 3. The Great American Dream! Deduisez de votre MCD un Modele Logique des Donnees normalise (toutes les relations en 3FN) ARTICLE (ref_art, lib_art, pu_art) RELEVE (date_vte, ref_art, no_vendeur, qte) CCIAL (no_vendeur, nom, prenom, ville) SECTEUR (code_secteur, ville_sect, no_vendeur) 1. Research! Ajouter les contraintes d'integrite d'entite : - Verifier les cles primaires (doivent etre uniques et non nulles) 2. Thesis On Web Crawlers! Ajouter les contraintes d'integrite de domaine : (Voir les rubriques Taille du champ, Masque de saisie, Valide si en utilisant l'aide contextuelle F1) - Le prix unitaire des articles ne peut pas etre inferieur ou egal a zero. - Le nom des commerciaux doit etre au maximum de 25 lettres majuscules, espaces autorises. 3. Research Introduction! Ajouter les contraintes d'integrite de reference. 4. Conventionality Thesis! Creer la table SECTEUR.
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Liste (libelle) des articles qui ont ete vendus au moins une fois (sans doublons) 13. Help! Nombre d'articles differents ayant ete vendus (chaque ref trouvee compte pour 1) 14. Research Sample! Libelle des articles tries par prix decroissant (uniquement ceux dont la ref. Middle! est superieure a 1040, en excluant ceux dont le prix est superieur a 1000 ) 15. Research Introduction Sample! Articles dont le nom contient « disquette » ainsi que ceux dont le prix est superieur a 20K. 16. Business Pro Reviews! Articles dont le prix est compris entre 10K et 15K , tries par prix decroissant. 17. Research Proposal Introduction Sample! Ref. Thesis! des articles et quantite totale vendue de chaque article. 18.
Pour chaque date, quantite moyenne journaliere d’articles vendus. 19. Proposal! Nom des vendeurs ayant vendu quelque chose le 13/01/2002. 20. The Great Gatsby Essay American! Afficher pour chaque nom de vendeur, le CA total realise en janvier 2002. 21. Sample! Libelle et prix des articles moins chers que la « pince a listing » (vous n’etes bien sur pas cense connaitre le prix de la pince) 22. Plan! Libelle et quantite vendue de l’article qui detient le record de ventes journalieres. 23.
Liste des vendeurs habitant dans la meme ville que le vendeur n°13. 24. Research Introduction! Ref. Business Plan Pro Reviews! et libelle des articles pour lesquels il n’y a pas eu de vente. Exercice 1 : soit le model conceptuel suivant. 2. Research Proposal Introduction! les associations entre les entites ? 3. On Dissertation! quels sont les types de ces associations ? 4. Sample! selectionner les codes, noms, prenoms des auteurs? 5. Gatsby! selectionner les codes, noms, prenoms, tel des auteurs ? 6. Sample! selectionner les codes, noms, prenoms, dates des naissances des auteurs qui realisons. 7. Pro Reviews! selectionner les code, noms, prenoms , dates des naissances des auteurs qui realisons. des exercices qui possede des difficultes ? 8. Research Introduction Sample! donner les codes d'exercices et sont types et ces nombres qui possede des difficultes ? 9. Problem Solution Essays Middle School! donner les types des difficultes et ces libelles estimer ? 10. Introduction! donner le code d'exercice et son type et sa difficulte qui lui possede ? Exercice 1 : soit le model conceptuel suivant. 2. Gatsby Dream! les associations entre les entites ? 3. Sample! deduire le MRD ? 4. The Great Gatsby Essay American! selectionner les numeros des licences des joueurs, noms ? 5. Proposal Introduction Sample! selectionner les numeros des licences des joueurs qui sont fait le match numero 2 ? 6. School! selectionner les numeros des licences des joueurs qui sont fait le match numero 1 ? 7. Proposal Sample! refaire question 6 en affichant le temps ? 8. Thesis! selectionner les numeros des licences des joueurs, noms, prenoms et ces equipes ? 9. Proposal! les equipes qui sont joue des matches ? 10. Solution! selectionner les numeros des licences des joueurs, noms, prenom, l'action qu'ils.
11. Research Introduction Sample! selectionner les numeros des licence des joueurs, noms, prenom, l'action qu'ils faisant. et dans quelle match ? Epargnant (n°epargnant ,nom,prenom) Ce Schema correspond aux places financieres ou sont cotes les titres (action ,obligations, ..)de l’entreprise. Ces titres sont detenus par des epargnants. Conventionality! Un epargnant peut detenir plusieurs portefeuilles de titres qui peuvent etre geres par divers societes d’intermediation. A – Creer la base de donnees Compte en respectant le MLD ci-dessus. B – Ecrire les requetes SQL suivantes : 1. Proposal Sample! La liste des epargnants qui possedent le titre WAFABANK. 2. Help On Dissertation! Les titres cotes a la fois a la place de casablanca et au caire.
3. Research Proposal! Calcul des valeurs des titres detenus par Mr SUBHI. 4. The Great Dream! Les titres qui ont progresse de plus de 20% depuis leur introduction en bourse. 5. Research Proposal Introduction! Suppression des titres du portefeuille n°15 du monsieur hassani. 6. Help! Les actionnaires detenant l’action BMCE et BCM. 7. Research Proposal Sample! Les epargnants qui n’ont plus de portefeuille de titre. 8. Help On Dissertation! Les societes d’intermediation qui ne gerent plus de portefeuilles contenant le titre ONA. Prepare par : Ahmed OULD TEBAKH, ing. Consultant en informatique. 05 decembre 2006. Mots-clef : Merise.
MCD. Research! entite, association, MLD. Solution School! relation, traduction, MPD. 1 Modele conceptuel de donnees (MCD) 2. 11 Sc hema (mtite-assoriatioi) 2. 1.2 Cas particuliers 4. 13 Roules de normalisation 6. 14 Methodlogie 7. 2 Modele logique de donnees (MLD) 7. 2.1 Systemes logiques 7. 2.2 Scliema relationnel 8. 2.3 Traduction 8.
3 Modele physique de donnees (MPD) 12 4 Retro-conception 12. 5 Compleme nts 13. 5.1 Agregation 13. 5.2 Identifiant relatif 14. 5.3 Sous entite .. Research! . Pro Reviews! .. Research! 16. 5.-3 Sous-associat ion .. Conventionality Thesis! . Research Proposal Introduction Sample! 17.
2 MODELE LOGIQUE DE DONNEES (MLD) 8. 2.2 Schema relationnel. Concentrons-nous sur le MLDR. Essays! Lorsque des donnees ont la meme structure (comme par exemple, les bordereaux de livraison), on proposal introduction peut les organiser en table dans laquelle les colonnes decrivent les champs en commun et les lignes contiennent les valeurs de ces champs pour chaque enregistrement. Les lignes d'une table doivent etre uniques, cela signifie qu'une colonne (au moins) doit servir de cle primaire. Business Plan Pro Reviews! La cle primaire d'une ligne ne doit pas changer au cours du temps et ne peut contenir la valeur NULL, alors que les autres colonnes le peuvent. Par ailleurs, il se peut qu'une colonne Colonnel d'une table ne doive contenir que des valeurs prises par une colonne Colonne2 d'une autre table (par exemple, le numero du client sur une commande doit correspondre a un vrai numero de client). Research Proposal Introduction Sample! La Colonne2 doit etre sans doublons (bien souvent il s'agit d'une cle primaire) et on thesis dit que la Colonnel est cle etrangere.
Par convention, on research proposal sample souligne les cles primaires et on conventionality fait preceder les cles etrangeres d'un diese # dans la description des colonnes d'une table : clients(numero client, nom client, prenom, adresse client, . Research! ) commandes(numero commande, date, #numero client, . Thesis Crawlers! ) - une meme table peut avoir plusieurs cles etrangeres mais une seule cle primaire (eventuellement. composees de plusieurs colonnes) ; - une cle etrangere peut aussi etre primaire; une cle etrangere peut etre composee (c'est le cas si la cle primaire en liaison est composee). Research Introduction! La section suivante contient des exemples. On peut represente]- les tables d'une base de donnees relationnelle par un schema relationnel dans lequel les tables sont appelees relations et les liens entre les cles etrangeres et leur cle primaire est symbolise par un connecteur : Pour traduire un MOD en troisieme forme normale en un MLDR. Business! il suffit d'appliquer cinq regles (a connaitre par coeur). Research Proposal Introduction Sample! Mais avant, on internal audit manager dit qu'une association entre deux entites (eventuellement reflexive) est de type : - 1 : 1 si les deux cardinalites sont 0,1 ou 1,1 ; - 1 : n si une des deux cardinalite est 0,n ou l.n; - n : m (plusieurs a plusieurs) si les deux cardinalites sont 0,n ou l,n. En fait, un schema relationnel ne peut faire la difference entre 0,n et l,n. Proposal Introduction! Par contre, il peut la faire outre 0.1 et 1,1 (cf. Problem Solution Essays Middle! regles 2 et 3). Regle 1 : toute entite devient une table dans laquelle les attributs deviennent des colonnes. Introduction! L'identifiant de l'entite constitue alors la cle primaire de la table. Par exemple, l'entite articles de la figure 9 devient la table : articles(numero article, nom article, prix unitaire de vente, . American Dream! ) Regle 2 : dans le cas de deux entites reliees par une association de type 1 : n, on research introduction sample ajoute une cle etrangere dans la table cote 0.1 ou 1,1, vers la cle primaire de la table cote 0,n ou l,n. Help On Dissertation! Les attributs de l'association glissent vers la table cote 0,1 ou 1,1.
Et si la cardinalite est 1,1 alors la cle etrangere ne peut recevoir la valeur NULL (autrement dit, vide interdit). Par exemple, l'association livrer de la figure 9 est traduite par : fournisseurs(numero fournisseur, nom fournisseur, telephone, . Research Introduction! ) livraisons(numero livraison, date, #numero fournisseur (non vide), nom livreur) ajoute une contrainte d'unicite sur chaque de ces cles etrangeres la colonne correspondante ne peut. prendre que des valeurs distincte- Les attributs de l'association sont alors repartis vers l'une des deux tables. Audit Cover Letter! Et si la cardinalite est 1.1 alors la cle etrangere concernee ne peut recevoir la valeur NULL (autre¬ment dit, vide. Par exemple. Research Introduction! l'association resider de la figure 8 est traduite p. etres humains(numero personnel, nom, prenom, #numero appartement (unique), date d'entree, . Solution Essays Middle! ) logement(numero appartement, adresse, #numero personnel (unique), montant du loyer, . Proposal Introduction Sample! ) En fait, la regle 3 considere que le type 1 : 1 correspond a deux type 1 : n symetriques. Problem Essays School! Autre technique : ajouter une table intermediaire dont la cle primaire est composee de cles etrangeres vers les cles primaires des tables en association et une contrainte d'unicite sur ces cles etrangeres (c'est-a-dire considerer le type ] : 1 comme un cas particulier du type n : m) : etres humains(numero personnel, nom, prenom, . Proposal Sample! ) logement(numero appartement, adresse, . On Dissertation! ) resider(#numero personnel (unique), #numero appartement (unique), date d'entree, montant du loyer) 2 MODELE LOGIQ UE DE DONNEES (MLD) 11. Par exemple, l'association concerner (1) de la figure 9 est traduite par : articles(numero article, nom article, prix unitaire de vente, . Research Proposal! ) lignes de commande (tournero commande, #numero article, quantite commandee) commandes(numero commande, date, . Plan! ) exemple, l'association vols de la figure 7 devient la table : . Introduction Sample! s(#numero avion, toumero pilote, toumero aeroport, date et heure, duree, distance)
3 Modele physique de donnees (MPD) Bien que certains outils (PowerAMC notamment) considere que le MPD et le MLD representent la meme chose, c'est faux. Solution Essays Middle School! Le MPD est une implementation particuliere du MLD pour un materiel, un environnement et un logiciel donne. Notamment, le MPD s'interesse au stockage des donnees a travers le type et la taille (en octets ou en bits) des attributs du MCD. Introduction Sample! Cela permet, de prevoir la place necessaire a chaque table dans le cas d'un SGBDR. Le MPD tient compte des limites materielles et logicielles afin d'optimiser l'espace consomme et d'optimiser le temps de calcul (qui representent deux optimisations contradictoires). Internal Letter! Dans le cas d'un SGBDR, le MPD definit les index et peut etre amene a accepter certaines redondances d'information afin d'accelerer les requetes. Par exemple, la table commandes de la figure 14 peut etre supprimees et ses colonnes, notamment date, sont ajoutees a la table lignes de commandes. Proposal Introduction! On renonce donc a la troisieme forme normale.
Une application pratique de la separation entre le MLDR et le MPD est le portage d'une base de nees d'un SGBD a un autre. Conventionality! Par exemple, on research proposal sample peut traduire un MPD Access on thesis un MLDR puis traduire MLDR en un MPD Oracle. Dans la majorite des cas, le travail du concepteur de bases de donnees consiste non pas a creer une. mais plutot a corriger ou etendre une base existante. Sample! Dans ce cas, la donnee est un modele lethode consiste a. Help On Dissertation! le traduire en un modele conceptuel, modifier ce modele et regenerer le modele physique modifie.
Il s'agit de retro-conception ou reverse engineering. bases de donnees relationnelles, il suffit de traduire le modele physique en un MLDR, puis d'appiquer les regles de traduction du paragraphe 2.3 dans le sens inverse. Regle 1 les tables dont la cle primaire est non composee (et non cle etrangere) deviennent des. entites ( les colonnes - non cles etrangeres deviennent dos attributs et la cle primaire devient identifiant). Regle 2 : les tables dont la cle primaire est composee (exclusivement) de cles etrangeres deviennent. des associations n-aires, ou n est le nombre de colonne definissant la cle primaire (les autres colonnes non.
cles etrangeres de viennent attributs). Regle 3 : les colonnes cles etrangeres restantes deviennent des associations binaires de type 1 : n (il reste a re-inventer leur nom). Regle 4 : les cardinalites minimales sont 1 si figure la. Introduction Sample! mention (non vide) et a retrouver par le bon sens sinon (0 par defaut). Help! Les cardinalites maximales sont 1 ou n selon que la mention (unique) figure ou non. Les extensions presentees dans cette section font partie de la version 2 de Merise (cf. Research Proposal Introduction Sample! [ ]).
Elles. permettent de traiter certaines situations reelles plus simplement. Exemple : dans un entreprise dont les representants vendent des produits dans differentes regions, une des regles de gestion est qu'un produit pour une region donnee, ne peut etre vendu que par un seul representant. Si on cover se contente du schema de la figure 17, alors cette regle n'est pas forcement respectee. Research Proposal Sample! Il faut. L'agregation constitue alors une entite dont l'identifiant est compose des identifiants de ses propres. representants(numero representant, nom representant, . Internal Audit! ) regions(numero region, nom region, . Proposal Introduction! ) produits(numero produit, nom produit, . Business Plan Pro Reviews! ) couvrir(#numero region, ftnumero produit. Research Proposal Introduction! #numero representant (non vide), date et heure) type n : m (cf. Problem Solution Essays School! figure 19). Research Proposal Introduction! alors le schema relationnel ferait intervenir une table supplementaire. representants(numero representant, nom representant, . The Great Gatsby Dream! ) regions(numero region, nom region, . Proposal Introduction Sample! ) produits(numero produit, nom produit, . On Dissertation! ) couvrir(numero region. Research Sample! #numero produit) vendre(##numero region. Help On Dissertation! ##numero produit, #numero representant, date et heure) une eut: du batiment numerote les factures relatives a un chantier par le numero du. -uivi d'un numero automatique. Research Proposal! Les factures du chantier 14 sont 1401, 1402 et 1403 tandis que . Essays! chantier 15 sont 1501 et 1502.
Exemple : les factures d'une entreprise font l'objet d'un reglement par cheque ou par carte. Research Sample! Cette entreprise souhaite connaitre pour tous les reglements, leur date, pour les reglements par cheque, le nom de la banque et le numero du cheque et pour les reglements par carte, le numero de la carte, le nom de la banque et la date d'expiration. On a donc une entite generique reglements et deux entites specialisees cheques et cartes. Gatsby Essay American! Ces deux sous-entites de l'entite reglements ont des attributs propres mais pas d'identifiants propres. Sur le schema entite-association, on research represente le lien qui unie une sous-entite a son entite generique par une fleche (cf. On Dissertation! figure 22 ).
La traduction des sous-entites au niveau logique relationnel fait intervenir une cle primaire commune ussi etrangere : reglements(numero reglement, date, nom banque) cheques(#numero reglement, numero cheque) cartes(#numero reglement, numero carte, date expiration) Remarque au niveau logique objet, on research introduction retrouve la notion d'heritage. Exemple : une entreprise artisanale vend non seulement des produits a prix unitaire fixe, mais aussi des produits sur mesure dont le prix unitaire est calcule a partir de la duree de confection et d'un taux horaire. Dans ce cas. On Dissertation! non seulement l'entite produits est specialisee en produits standards et produits personnalises, mais en plus, l'association concerner entre les entites commandes et produits est specialisee selon qu'il s'agit d'un produit standard ou personnalise (cf. Research Introduction Sample! figure 23 ). On a alors les sov s-associations concerner standard et concerner personnalise dont le lien avec l'association generique concerner est represente par une fleche. Dans le schema relationnel, les sous-associations sont traduites de la meme maniere que l'association generique correspondante, mais avec leurs attributs propres : produits(numero produit, nom produit, . Essays School! ) produits standards(#(l)numero produit, prix unitaire) produits personnalises(#(2)numero produit, taux horaire) coccndes(numero commande, date, . Proposal Introduction Sample! . Thesis On Web Crawlers! . Proposal! ) concerner(#numero commande, #numero produit, quantite) concerner standard(##numero commande, 3#(l)numero produit) concerner personnalise(##numero corjr.ar.de. Thesis Crawlers! ##(2)numero produit, duree)
Interets de la decomposition MCD/MLD/MPD : - le MOD permet d'eviter certaines erreurs de conception (en contradiction avec les regles de norma¬ le MCD permet de voir facilement quelles associations de type n : m, non binaires ou reflexives sont en presence (c'est important) ; - le MLD peut etre obtenu automatiquement par des outils de genie logiciel ; - le MCD peut etre traduit en differents MLD coherents (notamment on research introduction peut traduire un MCD en. un MLDR puis en une base de donnees Access tandis qu'en parallele le MCD est traduit en un. ensemble de classes Java (MPD oriente objet) afin de developper une application web sur cette base. Cependant, la methodologie Merise est typiquement francaise. Audit Manager! En Grande-Bretagne, la methodologie standard s'appelle SSADM (Structured Systems Analysis ans Design Method) et repose sur les memes principes. Introduction Sample! Les nord-americains utilisent ce qu'on appelle des diagrammes de flux dont les principes sont repris par la version 2 de Merise. Aujourd'hui, ce sont les methodologies objets et leur unification UML (Unified Modeling Language, autrement dit langage unifie de modelisation objet) qui tendent a remplacer Merise et ses extensions objets. Gatsby Dream! Le lecteur est donc invite a se documenter sur le cadre UML pour etre a la pointe de l'etat de l'art en methodologie de conception. Table des figures.
2 Associations 2. 1 Identifiants 3. 5 Cardinaiites 4. (i Association reflexive 4. 7 Association ternaire 5. 8 Associations plurielles 5. 9 Normalisation des relations G. 10 Schema relationnel 8. 11 Traduction d'une association de type 1 : n 9. !) Traduction d'une association de type 1:1 10.
13 Traduction alternative d'une association de type 1:1 10. M Traduction d'une association de type n : m 11. 15 Traduction d'une association ternaire 11. 16 Sacrifice de la troisieme forme normale 12. 17 Mauvais MCD 13. 18 Solution avec- agregation 14. 19 Agregation avec une association de type n : m 15. 20 Identifiant par concatenation 15. 21 Representation d'un identifiant relatif 16.
22 Representat ion des sous-entites 16. 23 Representation des sou^-associa?ions 17. mon email est : firstname.lastname@example.org. Pour les reponses aux questions sur MERISE : il y a aussi l'excellente F.A.Q MERISE : http://uml.developpez.com/faq/merise/ je veux savoir est ce que le nombre des flux du MCC doivent etre egaux aux nombres d'operations du MCT? et merci d'avance. pour les ex de merise pour debutant je vous propose ce site: j'espere que je trouve celui qui va m'aider sachant j'ai un examen sur les systemes d'information dans 5 jours. 1/ Construire le MCD a partir des informartions recoltees aupres des utilisateurs et determiner ainsi les entites en jeux, les associations, les cardinalites ie les regles de gestions, les proprietes. 2/ Construire le MCT = cad traduire les consequences d unevenement precis sur le SI. Je comprend ce qu est le MCT . Proposal Introduction! Ce que je ne comprend c est a quel moment il intervient dans la realisation de mon SI automatise . Audit Manager Cover Letter! Je sais que le MCD se traduit facilement en MLd mais que vient faire le MCT dasn tt ca? 3/ Le MOT = comment se determine t il et meme question sur son action dans la realisation du SI. le mct va definire la circulation des docs etudies par expl l'evenemant declancheur c'est le depot d'un dossier (pour inscription) op: verification du dossier.
etat(resultat de l'op): dossier accepter ou dossier rejeter. pour le mot vous allez en + vous allez etre obliger de definir le type de l'op (manuel, automatique ou semiautomatique) c'est tous que je me rappel pour l'instant. je suis un etudiant en systeme d'information j'ai besoin queleque. donne sur l'analyse merise. Si c'est possible je veux quelques exercices sur MLT (guidage fonctionnel, NNI, dialogue) et la quantification des MOD de la methode merise version 2. le site que vous cherchez est le suivant:www.enitab.fr/resource_pedago/support_cours/merise. je le trouve tres interressant. si vous voulez je cherche un site riche en UML. Min ketata hajer. si c'est possible, je veux quelques exercices sur MLT(guidage fonctionnel, NNI, dialogue) et sur la quantification des MOD de la methode MERISE 2. je vous serai reconnaissant si vous me repondez. prendre comme le cas d'un debutant.
Les membres obtiennent plus de réponses que les utilisateurs anonymes. Le fait d'être membre vous permet d'avoir un suivi détaillé de vos demandes. Le fait d'être membre vous permet d'avoir des options supplémentaires.