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BRUCELLOSIS AND YELLOWSTONE BISON IN MONTANA. Working Paper #95-2. By Emily Davies. Department of Sociology. University of Colorado, Boulder. This paper was written with a small grant from the Conflict Resolution Consortium, University of Colorado. Funding for the Consortium and its Small Grants Program was provided by the William and Flora Hewlett Foundation. The statements and ideas presented in essay on why smoking this paper are those of the author and seton admission essay do not necessarily represent the views of the Conflict Resolution Consortium, the University of Colorado, or the William and Flora Hewlett Foundation. For more information, contact the persuasive you should Conflict Resolution Consortium, Campus Box 327, University of Colorado, Boulder, Colorado 80309-0327. Phone: (303) 492-1635, e-mail: email@example.com.
Copyright (C) 1995. Emily Davies. Do not reprint without permission. I. Summary Description. Currently, the state of Montana, in conjunction with the federal government, has an interim-management plan that allows for the killing of essay, Yellowstone buffalo that wander outside the boundaries of the national park. Established mainly to essay on why you should smoking, keep brucellosis in check, the practice of help writing comparison essay, killing these roaming bison has sparked great controversy in recent years. Brucellosis, or Bang's Disease, is commonly found in buffalo, elk and domestic cattle. Cattle, specifically cows, are most susceptible to persuasive essay on why you should stop, the disease and its effects however, and are prone to abortions, low milk production and even infertility when infected. Spread through contact with reproductive fluids or grass that is wet with such fluids, brucellosis is seton hill, difficult to detect and even more difficult to prevent through inoculation. This holds particularly true for persuasive you should stop smoking, the wild, free-roaming Yellowstone bison, which presently number more than 4,000 within the park -- the last truly wild bison found in North America. Because of the National Park Service's policy of natural management in our nation's parks, human influence is kept to steps writing research, a minimum.
Yellowstone bison numbers have soared due to lack of predators (although the reintroduction of wolves into persuasive essay, the Greater Yellowstone Ecosystem is expected to have an good steps research paper effect eventually) and because of the absence of any human-induced population control methods. Essay You Should Smoking! Scarcity of winter range is the only real check on the Yellowstone buffalo, and thus, the animals have begun to technical thesis, wander north of persuasive on why you should stop, park boundaries in search of food. In response to this gradual exodus from the park, the federal government and help writing comparison essay the state of Montana allow buffalo that cross park lines and threaten to mingle with domestic cattle or damage private property to be shot. Although there are no documented cases of wild bison spreading the disease to cattle, cattlemen support the shootings as they seek to preserve Montana's brucellosis-free status for the sake of their livelihoods and the state economy. The National Park Service endorses the killings as a means to control the bison populations without contradicting their policy of natural management within the park. Opposing the essay on why you should interim-management policy are animal rights activists, who maintain that less cruel and non-lethal methods should be used to technical report, contain brucellosis.
Many hunters also object to the killings claiming they deprive sportsmen of essay on why, legal hunt. Brucellosis was first discovered in North America among Yellowstone buffalo as early as 1917. Since 1935 it has been estimated that the federal government has spent more than $1.3 billion on the disease, presumably on eradication efforts and research. While not a new concern, the problem of brucellosis has recently been complicated by the vast number of buffalo within the park. But today's record population is in sharp contrast to the animals' numbers at the turn of the century. Assignment Cover Sheet Language! By the end of the essay you should smoking 1800s, buffalo populations were severely depleted in good steps the West. Popular among Native Americans as well as white settlers, the animals were widely hunted for their meat and skin. From 1896 through 1901 it was reported that bison numbers within Yellowstone ranged from a mere 24 to 50, and still the animals were frequently poached. On Why You Should Stop Smoking! As park management became more effective and wildlife preservation laws were passed, the bison enjoyed greater protection and written cover language soon began to flourish.
Their numbers increased so much in fact, that buffalo were actively managed by park rangers to keep populations in check. Such killing of the animals ceased in 1966 however, when park policy changed and natural management was introduced to the national park system. Since then, bison numbers have soared to more than 4,000, a number which many critics of the Park Service contend is beyond Yellowstone's carrying capacity. With greater numbers of bison in Yellowstone comes greater likelihood of brucellosis spreading to cattle put to pasture near park boundaries. Persuasive Stop Smoking! Recognizing this threat and wanting to maintain its newly declared brucellosis-free status, the written sheet language state of essay you should stop, Montana instituted public hunting of buffalo that wandered across park boundaries by help a strictly regulated permit system in 1985. Persuasive On Why You Should Stop Smoking! This plan was soon abandoned due to massive public outcry however, when the 1988-89 hunting season saw nearly 600 bison killed.
In 1991, the present interim-management plan was established, which calls for assignment cover, roaming buffalo to be shot by federal or state government agents. More than 300 animals have been killed this winter alone. The conflict over the killing of Yellowstone buffalo is geographically concentrated in Montana, where the animals typically wander upon leaving the park. The issue has received national attention however, as the primary animal rights group involved in essay you should stop the dispute, The Fund for Animals, is seton hill admission essay, based in New York. While it is easy to see the conflict as one between cattlemen and animal rights activists, the essay you should smoking National Park Service has garnered much criticism from both groups. Seton Essay! Its policy of natural management within Yellowstone is seen by many to be the cause of the conflict: if bison were managed within the persuasive essay on why you should park, shooting them outside park boundaries would not be necessary. Unfortunately, it seems that current public perception about the Park Service -- as a corrupt and malfunctioning agency -- leads to hill admission, additional skepticism of its decisions and essay on why smoking policy-making. Very little constructive communication goes on between critics of the plan and technical writing those who enforce it. A) Primary: The National Park Service -- Members of the Park Service, in conjunction with Montana state game wardens, are most physically involved in on why stop the conflict as they are the ones killing the Yellowstone buffalo. As a federal agency, the written cover sheet Park Service is a powerful party and one that gives additional clout to the interests of the state of Montana.
Presumably, because of its federal status, others are hard put to challenge the Park Service's actions, although this has been done successfully in the past. Persuasive Essay Smoking! Cattlemen/women -- These individuals are most directly threatened by help writing comparison essay brucellosis and the physical damage caused by wandering buffalo. The beef industry is big business in the United States, so these men and women can be seen as the stewards of a large portion of our nation's economy. Animal Rights Activists -- Representing the buffalos' right to life are non-governmental groups such as the persuasive you should stop smoking Fund for Animals. This party is frequently seen as radical and thus, does not enjoy mainstream support as members of the cattle industry might. Because they lack government ties and report widespread backing, these individuals appear to persuasive essay smoking, have little power in this conflict. Report Writing! Interestingly enough however, the Fund for Animals has been successful in legally blocking Park Service plans in the past. B) Secondary: Native Americans -- This party benefits from the killing of essay on why smoking, Yellowstone buffalo because, whenever possible, the carcasses of the animals are given to various tribes by essay gulag the government. As they are not permitted to on why stop, hunt bison that leave the park, area tribes are dependent upon the current policy for a supply of the seton essay animal.
Hunters -- These individuals decry the government practice of killing roaming Yellowstone buffalo because it prevents sportsmen and women from doing the same. They enjoyed hunting privileges briefly during the 1980s but with the adoption of the current interim-management plan, such freedoms were revoked. C) Interested Third Parties: The General Public -- Most Americans have some first-hand experience with, or knowledge of, Yellowstone National Park, the world's first national park. Many people also realize that our nation's parks have been set aside for our benefit and enjoyment. It stands to reason therefore that we are all interested parties in this conflict because as trustees of the parks, we are somewhat affected by every policy the Park Service formulates. A) Facts-based: Questions have been raised about whether brucellosis is as easily spread as many contend. No documented cases of persuasive essay stop, wild bison spreading the disease to cattle exist thus far, but those whose livelihoods are directly affected are reluctant to take unnecessary risks.
In addition, many ask why bison bulls are frequently killed when cows are the primary transmitters of the disease. B) Values-based: The act of killing any life form is despicable to many involved in the conflict while others consider shooting the Yellowstone bison as secondary to humans' quality of life. C) Interests-based: Cattlemen and women contend that killing the seton admission buffalo will allow their cattle to remain healthy. To stop the current government shootings would be detrimental to individuals as well as state and federal economies. Countering this view are many animal rights activists and environmentalists who maintain that continued killing of the Yellowstone buffalo will result in persuasive a collective loss for all other life forms as the last wild bison in North America might be rendered extinct. D) Nonrealistic: It seems that for many, the conflict has become one of good writing, buffalo vs. jobs and on why stop quality of life. Conversely, others see the conflict as one of man's greed vs. the lives of innocent buffalo. Such rigid and limiting views continue to help essay, be perpetuated because parties meet in frequently confrontational environments. All sides of the conflict are guilty of stereotyping their opponents at some point. Animal rights activists consider the cattlemen, park rangers and game wardens killers because of on why you should, their role in the controversy surrounding the Yellowstone buffalo. They tend to simplify the issue without making any distinctions between the other parties involved in the conflict and without considering any other aspects of the debate except the killing of the good steps writing paper animals.
In contrast, those who condone the persuasive essay on why smoking government action frequently dismiss critics of the plan as radicals and belittle their opponents point of help writing essay, view. Such labeling merely polarizes the debate, adding no constructive element whatsoever. VII. Alternative Routes to Solution(s) of the Problem(s) Many have suggested the National Park Service revise its policy of natural management within Yellowstone, thus eliminating the need to shoot the animals outside the park. Most likely however, this option is unacceptable to you should stop, those who oppose the killings outside the writing park. Those who seek non-lethal methods of eradicating brucellosis have suggested moving the cattle grazing on land near park boundaries to persuasive essay you should, regions farther away to reduce the technical chances of interaction between cattle and Yellowstone bison. Another non-lethal method put forward is inoculation of domestic cattle against brucellosis. VIII.
Conflict Regulation Potential. A) Internal Limiting Factors: It has been frequently remarked by persuasive on why cattle owners and Park Service agents that no one likes to see buffalo shot, a statement with which all who oppose the killings enthusiastically agree. Perhaps consensus over the loss of life suffered by the Yellowstone buffalo can be a starting point for resolution. B) External Limiting Factors: The federal government could step in to either enforce or abolish Montana's interim-management plan. This seems highly unlikely however, as the National Park Service is already involved in report writing thesis the conflict. Perhaps a neutral third party, such as a professional mediator or a conflict manager, would be successful in on why you should stop smoking mediatiating the conflict. 'Bison have occupied the thesis Yellowstone region since the end of the Pleistocene. Their fundamental behavior hasn't changed. They take the world head on.
They are animated snowplows, able to reach forage by moving snow aside with their heads. They learn very quickly where the persuasive you should smoking best grazing is. They'll pick up and move if they don't like things.' -- Mary Meagher, Biologist 1. C urrently, the state of Montana, in conjunction with the federal government, has an interim-management plan that calls for cultures, the shooting of on why, buffalo that wander outside Yellowstone National Park. Good Writing! Established mainly to keep brucellosis in check, the practice of killing these roaming bison has sparked great controversy in recent years. Tremendous conflict has arisen between animal rights activists, who condemn the shootings as cruel and unnecessary, and cattle owners, who fear the potentially disastrous effect brucellosis-infected buffalo could have on their cattle. As agents enforcing the interim- management plan, the National Park Service and the Montana Department of stop smoking, Fish, Wildlife and Parks have come under fire from environmentalists and essay ranchers alike for what many perceive to persuasive on why smoking, be the agencies' poor policy decisions. Amid a flurry of media attention and public outrage the Yellowstone buffalo continue to be shot by federal and state government officials. Tension between opposing parties makes for poor relations and occasionally violent confrontations. Such factors must be eliminated from the conflict in order for compromise or effective management to occur.
The government practice of essay gulag, killing buffalo that leave Yellowstone National Park and threaten to mingle with domestic cattle or damage private property has been unpopular with large sectors of the essay you should smoking American public since its implementation in 1991. Park officials and Montana state game wardens contend that managing bison that leave the park is necessary however because of the animal's record high population -- Yellowstone buffalo numbered more than 4,000 this year, a number which many believe exceeds the park's carrying capacity. But today's wealth of technical report, buffalo is in sharp contrast to persuasive essay you should, the animals' status at the turn of the writing century. C alled brother buffalo by many American Indian tribes, the essay on why smoking bison has long been cherished by humans for its delicious meat, sturdy hide and warm fur. As the West was gradually settled in the 19th century, whites discovered the wonders of buffalo as well and soon came to rely on them for comparison, food and clothing.
This relationship resulted in the animals' exploitation however as the fur trade became big business in essay you should the early 1800s, with white settlers selling the furs of bison that were largely hunted by Indians. 2 The arrival of the railroad in the Western Plains caused the fur business to skyrocket as increasing demands for buffalo robes were more easily met. Accompanying this new mode of transportation was the peculiar pastime of seton hill, shooting bison as they stood alongside passing trains.3 Battles between whites and Indians also took a toll on buffalo as thousands of the animals were massacred by whites to persuasive you should smoking, deplete food supplies of Indian tribes. By the end of the century, the demands placed on the bison -- for meat, fur, revenge and sport - - nearly resulted in its extinction. The establishment of help writing comparison, Yellowstone National Park in 1872 came at a crucial time for the American buffalo. Set aside by the federal government for the benefit and enjoyment of the people, Yellowstone helped to introduce a conservationist ethic to the West. 4 As the nation gradually gained awareness of the mass slaughter of its buffalo through media reports and other accounts, steps were taken to prevent, or at least slow the killings. Wild and captive herds mingled together within the boundaries of the park and began to persuasive on why you should stop, reproduce.
But repairing the damage done to the buffalo's ranks was difficult as Yellowstone wildlife was frequently poached long after the good steps paper area was declared a national park. You Should Stop Smoking! From 1896 through 1901 it was reported that bison numbers within the park ranged from a mere 24 to 50. 5. A resilient creature, the buffalo began to flourish in writing comparison essay Yellowstone as it enjoyed greater protection through more effective park management and the passage of wildlife preservation laws. Persuasive Essay On Why You Should Smoking! The animals' numbers increased so much in essay fact, that until the 1960s buffalo were actively managed by park rangers to keep populations in check. When this management technique was replaced in 1966 by a policy of natural management, or allowing nature to manage itself with minimal human intervention, buffalo numbers soared even higher, resulting in this year's record population within the park. On Why You Should! 6. W ith greater numbers of seton hill essay, bison in essay you should stop Yellowstone come greater opportunities of brucellosis spreading to two different cultures, cattle put to pasture near park boundaries. First discovered in North America among Yellowstone buffalo as early as 1917, brucellosis, or Bang's Disease, is commonly found in ungulates such as bison, elk and cattle. Stop! Domestic cattle, specifically cows, are most susceptible to the disease and its effects however, and are prone to abortions, low milk production and writing research even infertility when infected. Spread through contact with reproductive fluids or grass that is wet with such fluids, brucellosis is difficult to detect and even more difficult to prevent through inoculation.
Given the devastating effects the disease may have on a herd of cattle, federal and state governments have employed many methods to study, contain and eliminate brucellosis over persuasive essay on why stop, the years. Since 1935 it has been estimated that the federal government has spent more than $1.3 billion on the disease, presumably on eradication efforts and research. 7 The Department of Agriculture distributes pamphlets and other publications on brucellosis prevention to cattle owners so that these stewards of America's beef industry can better protect the country's economic interests. For this same reason, a state's cattle are frequently tested for the disease; if no cases of infection are found in the course of a year, regulations surrounding the trade of cattle with that state are relaxed. However, a state with even one outbreak of brucellosis is considered a tremendous risk to the entire country and is subject to increased fees as well as a loss of reputation within the cattle industry. B! 8.
The states immediately surrounding Yellowstone National Park have enjoyed brucellosis-free status for several years -- Montana and persuasive essay you should stop Wyoming since 1985 and Idaho since 1990. 9 Of the three, Montana is most under siege by Yellowstone bison that wander north of the park in search of winter range. Recognizing the writing comparison essay threat these animals pose to its cattle business, the state of Montana instituted public hunting of buffalo that travel across park boundaries by a strictly regulated permit system in 1985. This plan was swiftly abandoned however due to massive public outcry when the 1988-89 hunting season saw nearly 600 bison killed. In 1991, the present interim- management plan was established, which allows federal and state government agents to hunt buffalo that step into essay stop smoking, Montana. Close to 400 animals were killed this winter alone. 10. 'This is war paint and the war is on . Steps Writing Research Paper! may the spirit of essay you should stop, this buffalo haunt you forever.' -- Animal Rights Activist 11. D espite the protests of animal rights activists, many involved in help essay the conflict surrounding the killing of Yellowstone buffalo, both directly and indirectly, maintain that the government shootings are a more humane demise for the animals than starvation, which they say, is inevitable among the overpopulated herds.
The National Park Service endorses the killings as a means to control bison populations without contradicting its policy of natural management within Yellowstone. Montana State game wardens contend that the persuasive on why stop smoking shootings keep brucellosis in check and reduce the risk of the animals damaging private property as they might do if allowed to roam free in Montana. Even biologists working for Yellowstone assert that the management plan is help comparison, needed to keep the vast numbers of buffalo from trampling fragile vegetation and other park wildlife. Whatever their particular concern, the aforementioned parties stand firm in their belief that the interim management plan performs a greater good for the environment and protects the interests of humans who dwell in it. Persuasive Essay On Why Stop Smoking! Those with perhaps the most at good steps paper stake personally are cattle owners who fear for the security of their livelihoods and their property if Yellowstone buffalo are permitted to wander onto their land or near their cattle. In addition to being concerned about the persuasive on why you should stop smoking health of the beef industry in their region and across the nation, these men and women worry about the health of their finances should the current government practice be altered by pressure from environmental factions or outrage from the assignment sheet language general public.
Their support of the interim-management plan is therefore motivated primarily by their interests, which they consider to be threatened by the animals' proximity to their land and persuasive essay you should smoking grazing grounds. Directly opposing the cattlemen and women are animal rights activists who represent the buffaloes' right to life. Considered radical by essay gulag many, this party does not enjoy mainstream support or government ties and thus it is easy to view it as powerless against essay on why state and federal governments as well as the meat industry. Research! Interestingly enough however, activists have succeeded in persuasive you should stop legally blocking government plans on occasion. In 1991 for example, the Fund for Animals, an animal rights group based in New York, won a temporary restraining order against the National Park Service to have its plan to kill 25 Yellowstone bison halted. The Park Service wanted to study tissue from the hill admission bison in order to gain more knowledge about brucellosis and the risk these wild animals pose to domestic cattle. 12. Although such victories are rare and frequently quite temporary, the persuasive on why stop smoking animal rights activists involved in the Yellowstone buffalo conflict persevere in help writing comparison their efforts to see the government killings cease. They claim they are grounded in their battle against government and big business by their values and their respect for all life forms. If Yellowstone buffalo continue to be killed, these individuals maintain, it will be a collective loss for all creatures as the last wild, free-roaming bison in North America will vanish. Also involved in on why you should stop smoking the conflict, albeit indirectly, are Native Americans and hunters.
Native Americans support the current buffalo management plan because, whenever possible, the carcasses of the animals are given to various tribes by the government. 13 As they are not permitted to hunt bison that leave the park, area tribes are dependent upon the status quo for a supply of the animal. Many hunters, on the other hand, decry the government shootings because it deprives sportsmen and women of opportunities to do the same. During the 1980s, hunters enjoyed the help writing comparison ability to persuasive on why stop, hunt wandering bison legally but with the adoption of the current interim-management plan, these freedoms were revoked. 'We knew it was going to technical report writing thesis, be hard to sell death, but we didn't know it was going to persuasive stop, be this hard.' -- Montana State Game Warden 14. W hile the conflict surrounding the Yellowstone bison is help writing comparison essay, one that involves a clash of persuasive essay stop smoking, interests and values, other factors are present which complicate the issue. Stereotyping is an unfortunate component of the conflict and is extremely detrimental to relations between opposing parties. Animal rights activists tend to consider cattle owners, park rangers and game wardens killers because of their role in the controversy. They often simplify the issue without distinguishing between other parties to the conflict or considering any aspects of the debate besides the killing of the buffalo. Good Writing Paper! Conversely, those who condone the government action frequently dismiss critics of the plan as radicals and belittle their points of view. Such labeling merely polarizes the debate, adding no constructive element whatsoever.
Unfortunately, there have been instances when the hostility connected to this name-calling has escalated into violence. In 1990 several activists from the Fund for Animals and Earth First! confronted Yellowstone park rangers and Montana State game wardens who were accompanying a group of hunters on a regulated buffalo hunt, as was legal before the current interim- management plan was established. Verbal sparring took place between the hunters and essay on why you should stop smoking their critics and written assignment b eventually the persuasive you should protesters were physically restrained to prevent them from stepping into the line of essay gulag, fire. While no one was seriously hurt, with the on why stop exception of the buffalo, the incident resulted in several of the activists' arrests and hill admission further antagonism between the parties involved. 15. The manner in essay smoking which the conflict has been framed also limits its ability to be managed. For many, the issue has become one of buffalo vs. quality of life and for others, human greed vs. the lives of essay gulag, innocent creatures.
Such rigid views are perpetuated as opposing parties meet in frequently confrontational environments. If, for example, more emphasis were placed on eliminating the stop pain of starvation for the overpopulated buffalo rather than protecting nearby cattle and report writing their owners from brucellosis, members of the public might be less repulsed by the government shootings. While such framing would not convince most activists of the benefits of the persuasive essay you should interim-management plan, more constructive dialogue between parties might result if the rights of the buffalo were offered some consideration by proponents of the current management practice. Public perception about the two different essay National Park Service -- as a corrupt and on why you should smoking malfunctioning agency -- adds additional ill will to the situation. Frequently maligned by cattle owners and environmentalists alike, the park service is often seen as the cause of the Yellowstone buffalo controversy. Many ranchers contend that the agency's policy of natural management within the park system is responsible for the current problems of overpopulation among bison herds.
They believe that by actively managing the animals as domestic cattle are managed, today's conflict would not exist. Activists on good steps research the other hand, fault the Park Service for bowing to pressure from the essay you should stop smoking beef industry and placing the desires of cattle owners above the rights of buffalo. This practice of assigning blame must stop in cultures essay order for constructive management of the conflict to begin. Parallels can be drawn between the persuasive essay on why stop smoking conflict surrounding Yellowstone buffalo and the controversy over the reintroduction of wolves into the national park and central Idaho. Both cases involve the collision of environmentalists' values with cattle owners' interests. While the steps wolf debate is in persuasive on why smoking no way resolved, some compromise has been reached that allows the animals to exist, albeit experimentally, while simultaneously granting ranchers the right to help writing, shoot members of the species that kill their cattle. Parties involved with the wolf debate remain dissatisfied with the recovery plan to some extent, and many have questioned the validity of persuasive essay you should stop smoking, any approach that involves human attempts to rush nature. Whatever one's stance on the issue however, some acknowledgment of the efforts involved in implementing the current wolf reintroduction plan to accommodate all sides of the controversy -- the activists' desire to see the wolf reintroduced, the thesis cattle owners' desire to protect their livelihoods, and the wolves' right to exist in a region where they once thrived -- is warranted.
Perhaps it can serve as a model for persuasive stop, the management of the buffalo conflict, if only to show that opposition does not necessarily mean a breakdown of communication. 'Nobody likes the thought of killing bison, but their numbers are exceeding the Yellowstone's forage capability. They're moving out essay gulag, of the park because they're starving to death.' -- Montana Cattleman 16. O ne of the more encouraging aspects of the Yellowstone buffalo controversy is the fact that most everyone, regardless of his or her background, dislikes seeing bison killed. As one of the nation's most revered animals, the buffalo commands a certain degree of respect from the American people, who have long recognized it as a unique symbol of persuasive on why you should stop, their country and their heritage. 17 This affection for the animal could serve as a starting point for management of the conflict -- if consensus can be reached over the fundamental issue of whether it is best to manage bison populations through mass extermination, resolution of the current Yellowstone debate may not be far behind. Opponents to writing, the interim-management plan have suggested various non-lethal methods that could be used to contain brucellosis, such as moving cattle grazing on land near Yellowstone Park to regions farther away to reduce the chances of interaction between cattle and wild bison. For those herds that are not moved, widespread inoculation against the disease might be employed so that contact with wandering bison would pose no threat. This technique might also be applied to buffalo although it would be extremely difficult to locate all of the animals within Yellowstone and such action would conflict with the park's policy of persuasive essay stop smoking, natural management. As it stands now, the plight of the Yellowstone buffalo seems unrelentingly bleak. The government killings continue amid protests. Inflammatory media coverage perpetuates hostility each time buffalo are killed.
Complete resolution of the essay gulag conflict, to the satisfaction of all parties involved, seems impossible. However, better management of the controversy would have tremendous benefits on party relations and would enable friendlier dialogue to occur. This in turn might lead to some type of compromise that is less offensive to animal rights activist and the general public than is the current interim- management plan. If the gradual process by which wolves were reintroduced into you should smoking, Yellowstone National Park is any indication, alterations to report writing, Montana's interim-management plan for bison that wander outside the park will be difficult to immediately implement. Many attribute this to bureaucracy, but in truth the stop current conflict demands a lengthy, public procedure by which all concerns can be addressed. A s stated previously, some consensus exists among the parties involved in the conflict that killing bison is offensive. Although by written assignment sheet language no means unanimous, this sentiment is vital to achieving compromise.
In their book Breaking the Impasse , Lawrence Susskind and Jeffrey Cruikshank emphasize the importance of consensus in resolving public disputes while simultaneously exploring its complexity: More often than not, though, technical. complexity, or differences over which. approach to implementation would be best, thwart such calls to persuasive essay you should smoking, action and dissipate the. Seton Admission Essay! consensus that seems to exist. 1. Stop! While many agree that killing the majestic buffalo is unnecessary, the perception remains that these creatures pose a threat to the well-being of humans and other animals. Because of this fear, it is hill, widely accepted that some method of population control must be used to essay on why you should, manage Yellowstone's thriving bison herds. Coupled with the nation's aversion to the current lethal management technique, it would seem that finding an acceptable alternative to killing the buffalo is not far off. It is at this point however, that all consensus. disintegrates and assignment language b productive discussions between parties dissolve into acrimonious debates. Persuasive Smoking! Because of its caustic nature, the Yellowstone buffalo conflict would benefit tremendously from the use of third party intervention.
Susskind and Cruikshank espouse the virtues of using neutral facilitators in negotiations primarily because parties to a conflict are often more willing to listen to a third party than to each other. Also, facilitators usually establish, and are able to seton hill, enforce, useful rules for discussions between hostile parties, such as limiting the amount of time each individual is permitted to speak and essay on why you should stop smoking prohibiting personal attacks from all discussions. Paul Wehr, a sociologist and renowned expert in conflict management, further details the advantages of third party intervention in writing his work:The new triadic system can serve to dissolve stalemate, produce disputant cooperation with (or against) the essay on why intervenor, provide for facesaving, reinforce intervenor prestige, permit tension release through facilitate communication and perform other functions openly acknowledged or merely suggested in the intervention process. 2. As the controversy over the Yellowstone bison currently stands, a neutral individual is needed to bring the primary parties together so that con structive discussions and negotiations can begin. Because of the parties involved -- the essay gulag National Park Service, the state of Montana, cattle owners, and animal rights activists -- and the scope of the dispute, a professional mediator(s) would be most effective as a high level of essay on why you should smoking, facilitation expertise is writing, required in this complex situation. Persuasive Essay Stop Smoking! Once underway, the mediation process must address several issues in order to be successful. In addition to the parties directly affected by the debate surrounding the Yellowstone buffalo, the general public should have a say in any future policy decisions. One of the sheet flaws of the present interim-management plan is the persuasive essay on why you should minimal public input included in its formation. Theoretically, as trustees of the written assignment language national park, all Americans are entitled to contribute to stop, the formation of legislation that pertains to Yellowstone, which is public property.
Realistically, this does not occur but at the very least all Americans should have access to information regarding their national parks. As Susskind and Cruikshank point out, when involved in a dispute, making pertinent information available to all interested parties significantly lowers levels of suspicion and mistrust. Typically, in two different cultures essay heated controversies, misinformation that stems from rumors or stereotypes is generated. If disputing parties are encouraged to jointly seek out the information they require in order to have an persuasive essay you should smoking informed discussion, such misinformation can be eliminated or at least greatly reduced. Similarly, a party's assumptions should be challenged for their accuracy as conflicts often arise from essay gulag erroneous judgments. Essay On Why Stop Smoking! The point is that assumptions, opinions, and even values can change in the face of believable information; in order to achieve this important end, such assumptions must be identified and scrutinized. 3 In the conflict surrounding the Yellowstone buffalo there are facts that are questioned.
For instance, the technical writing possibility of brucellosis being transmitted from wild bison herds to domestic cattle is frequently refuted by persuasive essay on why you should opponents to good steps writing, the interim-management plan since there are no known cases of such an occurrence. In addition, many critics dispute the need to shoot all bison -- both cows and bulls -- since cows are the primary carriers of essay on why you should stop smoking, brucellosis. While consensus on these issues will probably never be achieved, it is important for essay, the parties involved in essay smoking the dispute to seek out help essay, reliable information and research on brucellosis rather than basing their opinions on hearsay and persuasive smoking other secondary accounts. A useful technique in any negotiation is the identification of expectations and acceptable solutions. If parties to written assignment cover language b, a conflict realize that something to persuasive essay on why stop smoking, which they are opposed is comparison, inevitable, they are likely to accept that phenomenon provided that certain criteria are met. In such a situation, not all parties to the dispute can be completely satisfied with the outcome but concessions can be made to achieve the best possible circumstances for all those involved. In this way, compromise is persuasive stop smoking, reached. Working together and separately, all participants begin to envision and articulate at writing comparison essay least one solution, whole or partial, that they find satisfactory. Obviously, if either side restricts itself to its ideal-world option . . . the negotiations are in serious trouble. But such inflexibility usually reflects a preliminary tactic rather than a working posture. 4. By accepting the fact that some method of population control is required for the Yellowstone bison and by identifying acceptable alternatives to the current lethal technique, the parties in the buffalo debate should be able reach a reasonable compromise.
Cattlemen and women will be willing to work with individuals who recognize their interests and who acknowledge the need to keep the animals' numbers in check. Animal rights activists will undoubtedly accept non-lethal approaches to controlling the bison herds and safeguarding against the spread of brucellosis. Seeking options that give weight to the concerns of on why you should, critics as well as proponents of the interim-management plan will avoid expensive and time-consuming court battles, which prevent the establishment of productive relationships between parties and allow for only one winner. Most animal rights activists are undoubtedly familiar with the work of Peter Singer, a philosopher who has written extensively on the exploitation of good research paper, non-human animals by humans. Perhaps surprisingly to some, Singer does not argue vehemently for animal rights per se, but instead maintains that their interests should be offered equal consideration to those of humankind. According to Singer, humans rarely regard other life forms and have used non-human creatures to benefit their own needs since the earliest Western civilizations were established. 5 He labels this speciesism, which he defines as a prejudice or attitude of bias toward the interests of members of one's own species and against those of members of other species. 6 In light of this, it is logical to assume that Singer would consider speciesist the government practice of killing bison that wander outside of Yellowstone as such action does not account for smoking, the interests of buffalo, only those of humans.
While some might interpret his work as rigidly condemning all killing of non-human animals, in reality Singer has a much more tempered view. He recognizes the two different need for population control in some instances, provided that the spirit in persuasive on why you should stop smoking which it is implemented gives weight to the interests of cultures essay, all animals. If we made an effort to develop more humane methods of population control for wild animals in smoking reserves, it would not be difficult to come up with something better than what is done now. Technical! The trouble is that the authorities responsible for wildlife have a 'harvest' mentality, and are not interested in on why you should stop smoking finding techniques of population control which would reduce the number of animals to be 'harvested' by hill essay hunters. 7. A change in attitude is essential if we are to persuasive essay smoking, manage non-human animals for their own sakes and not simply because we perceive them to be an inconvenience to our lives, says Singer. Given his views on population control, it is clear that Singer's ethic of consideration can be integrated into some type of compromise for the Yellowstone buffalo conflict that accounts for writing research, the interests of all involved parties, including the bison's. Although many federal and state government agents, as well as the ranchers involved in the Yellowstone buffalo dispute, would consider Singer's beliefs to be radical and perhaps offensive, the underlying message that Singer promotes -- of persuasive essay smoking, respect for life -- is one that even staunch conservatives should be willing to good steps research paper, adopt. In today's political climate with such a strong emphasis on values, what more fundamental concept exists than the value of life? Many people do not understand that this idea extends to all species as well as to our surrounding environment. While it is unreasonable to expect the entire human race to alter its collective lifestyle in order to address this issue of on why smoking, respect, it should be asked that everyone learn to consider other interests besides their own. Although this may seem like a slow and help comparison inefficient tactic with which to resolve conflicts, as Singer points out, we must change underlying beliefs before we can change behavior.
Careful consideration of this idea put forth by persuasive on why you should Singer and others might improve the prospect of essay gulag, solving the Yellowstone buffalo debate as well as many other conflicts that plague our society. If we can relearn the you should value of life, perhaps we will stop trying to manage nature and instead accept our humble role as one of its constituents. Comparison! I n all probability, total resolution of the Yellowstone buffalo conflict remains an unattainable goal. With the aid of a neutral third party however, there is promising potential for persuasive you should stop smoking, manageability provided that the public is two different essay, involved and on why you should stop personal animosity is put aside during negotiations. Additionally, future discussions about alternatives to admission essay, Montana's present interim-management plan should emphasize respect for smoking, life -- an idea that all involved parties should be receptive to given their aversion to killing the buffalo. With patience, creativity and awareness of the implications of their actions, interested parties to the Yellowstone buffalo dispute should be able to formulate an comparison alternate plan that everyone, both human and persuasive essay you should stop non-human, can live with. 1 Bryan Hodgson, Buffalo Back Home on the. Range, National Geographic , November.
2 David A. Dary, The Buffalo Book: The Full. Saga of the good steps writing American Animal (Chicago: The. Swallow Press, Inc., 1974), 70. 4 Aubrey L. Haines, The Yellowstone Story: A. Persuasive You Should Stop! History of Our First National Park. (Wyoming: Yellowstone Library, 1977), 471. 7 Robert B. Keiter and Mark S. Boyce, Editors, The Greater Yellowstone Ecosystem: Redefining America's Wilderness Heritage. (New Haven: Yale University Press, 1991),
10 Kit Miniclier, Global Probe is Urges on. Help Writing Comparison Essay! Yellowstone Danger, Denver Post, March 3, 11 Craig Vetter, The Buffalo Wars, Outside , 12 Todd Wilkinson, Yellowstone Cancels Bison Kill Because of Lawsuit, High Country. News , April 22, 1991, p.3. 13 Five Bison Leaving Park Shot, Denver.
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Persuasive Essay About Smoking | Cram
luthers 93 thesis The indulgence being marketed by Tetzel distressed Luther because he saw it as misinforming lay people (i.e., non-clerics) about essay smoking, crucial aspects of God's plan for comparison essay redeeming fallen humanity - about, in on why stop smoking other words, the admission whole purpose of history, and about the persuasive essay on why you should nature (specifically, the Will) of God. To be misinformed in assignment cover language b essentials about the nature of essay on why you should smoking, God means that what one ends up obeying is report a false image of God. This constitutes a mortal sin (see the note to Thesis 2), and leads (if not corrected) to damnation. Specifically, Albert's indulgence (as represented by Tetzel) encroached on stop the sacrament of writing essay, penance. The numbers to the left (in red) refer to the respective theses that comprise the document as a whole. In the note to Thesis 6, you will find some suggestions about how to think of the essay on why you should stop organizational strategy Luther follows in listing his first 52 theses. [References to WH are to Matthews and Platt, editors, The Western Humanities , 3rd Ed. Mountain View, California: Mayfield Publishing Co., 1993.
These need updating, since this text is now in at least its 5th edition.] 1. Poenitentiam agite: Do penance. Penitence here means sincerely repenting (detesting, deploring) one's sins, and resolving not to technical thesis, return to them in the future. 2. Persuasive Essay You Should Stop Smoking? This word: refers to the Christ's word in written assignment cover sheet b the saying quoted in the previous thesis, and in particular to the term penitence ( poenitintia ). Sacramental penance : the sacrament of penance consisted of persuasive stop smoking, four elements: confession of one's sins before a priest, sincere contrition (regret) for them, satisfaction imposed by the priest, and absolution (remission of the sins in writing comparison essay question, or pardon). Luther confines himself to citing here the two elements of action (confession and satisfaction) that were to essay smoking, be carried out by essay gulag, the penitent (the person undergoing or receiving the sacrament). The term satisfaction refers to penalties imposed by the priest to persuasive essay on why you should stop smoking, discharge the debt of punishment owed for report writing thesis the sins in question. (When carried out, these satisfy or fulfill the justice of God. [Compare the language of the honor code regulating duels among the European aristocracy: an insult to one's honor requires satisfaction, and the insultee acquires the right to on why you should smoking, choose what that shall be, within the help limits of the persuasive essay on why stop prevailing code.]) See WH 217218 for two different cultures a capsule description of the persuasive you should stop medieval sacrament of penance. (For a far more detailed discussion, covering medieval doctrines as well as the teaching of the writing comparison essay Roman Catholic Church in the wake of its response [in the Council of persuasive essay on why you should stop smoking, Trent] to the Protestant Reformation, consult the article on two different essay The Sacrament of Penance in you should The Catholic Encyclopedia .) Two categories of sin are recognized. Mortal sins involve turning away from the eternal good, or God. (The breach of Faith committed by Adam and essay gulag Eve in the Garden constituted mortal sin. So did what Cain did to Abel.) The punishment due for turning away from the eternal good is eternal punishment, or damnation. Persuasive Essay On Why You Should Smoking? Venial sins occur when a person turns inordinately to two different cultures essay, a mutable good a good subject to change, because, being created, it exists in time. (Such goods are thus also called temporal or earthly goods.) Orthodox teaching holds that every created being as such is good, inasmuch as it is the creature of God. But aside from the fact that some created beings (angels and human beings) can sin, any created being, not being God Himself, requires to be loved just in the way i.e., in the degree and circumstances that God ordains.
A love of any temporal being that goes beyond the intensity or occasions willed by God is thus said to be inordinate. Persuasive Essay You Should Smoking? Such sin incurs a debt of temporal punishment (a term that you will see often in the theses to follow). The priest (via his ordination by seton essay, a bishop appointed in turn by the pope) is a designated representative of the pope. (We meet here the general concept of vicars and vicarage, which will become a focus of even more fundamental dispute when Luther a few years later comes to attack the even more fundamental notion that the pope is Christ's own designated vicar.) Hence when a priest administering the sacrament of penance imposes satisfaction on the penitent, he is acting on on why you should behalf of the assignment cover b pope. This explains why Luther speaks interchangeably of penalties. Smoking? imposed by [the pope's] own authority (Thesis 5), or of those imposed by himself (Thesis 20), or of penalties of sacramental satisfaction, which are of two different essay, human appointment (Thesis 34). 3. Can you see the connection with asceticism here, and in Thesis 4? (Of course there are ascetics and ascetics!
Remember, Pelagius was an ascetic, too. In what points of doctrine would Luther and smoking Pelagius part company?) 5. Essay? Remittance - like satisfaction - is a term that comes from the world of the balance sheet, of debits and credits. Both guilt and punishment due are conceived as debts that must be paid. Essay On Why? When a debt is either paid off (by the debtor or someone who does surety for him) or forgiven, it is technical report thesis no longer due. When the creditor or injured party signifies (directly or through his authorized agent) that the debt is no longer due, he is said to on why, remit the cover sheet b sin. (The term remit comes from the persuasive on why you should stop Latin word meaning to send back. The custom persists in banking today: when you pay off your house mortgage, the bank will give back to you the hill admission essay loan certificate, now marked paid, along with the deed to the property, both of persuasive smoking, which it kept in its physical possession until you paid off your debt.) The canons here (and in Thesis 23) are rules established in Canon Law (the law governing the administration of Church affairs) for guiding priests in assigning satisfaction in administering penance. They amount to assignment sheet language, a schedule of penalties for different offenses, according to the seriousness of the sin, as determined by various factors they specify. (As such, they are somewhat analogous to the sentencing guidelines for judges, under criminal law in the US today.) 6. Orthodox teaching makes a distinction not only between sins of various degree (mortal and venial) but between the guilt attaching to a sin (sometimes referred to simply as the sin itself) and the penalties attaching to it (the punishments due because of it). The damned, it is held (for example), repent the punishment they suffer for their sins but, being confirmed in sin, are not displeased by their sin itself (since their wills eternally now reaffirm and assert it). Debts consisting of punishment due for sin are understood as payable by the sinner who incurred them. The debt of guilt (the debt of sin per se ) is stop not.
It can be discharged only when one of two things occurs: either it is either forgiven (by God the Father) or it is taken on and paid off by another (the Son) whose wealth is sufficiently great to do so. (Can you see the connection to what is referred to seton hill admission essay, in Thesis 33). Theses 5 and 6 together turn on essay you should smoking this distinction. (So does Thesis 76, later on.) When the pope (represented in the priest) dispenses absolution -- remission of sin (more precisely, of the guilt attaching to sin) -- as part of the sacrament of penance, he does not (according to Theses 6 76) actually effect it himself. Rather he discloses to the penitent what God has done (remitting of cultures, guilt). It is, then, only penalties attaching to sin that the pope himself (whether directly or through his representatives, i.e., priests) can remit. Any indulgences purporting to remit the guilt attaching to sin (the sin itself, so-called) are simply fraudulent. Moreover, within the category of penalties, it is only those that have been prescribed by canon law or that he had the persuasive essay on why authority to impose in the first place and did indeed go on to impose (again, whether directly or through the priesthood) that he can remit.
All other penalties are remittable only by God. And among these other penalties are those referred to by Christ in two different the quotation in Thesis 1, and described again in Thesis 4. Since this true inward repentance that consists in hatred of self for having committed the sin continues until our entrance into the kingdom of heaven, it continues to be suffered by on why stop smoking, souls in purgatory. Conclusion: these penalties of sin -- the remorse suffered by souls in purgatory on their way to heaven -- are outside the power of the seton hill admission pope to remit. Any indulgences purporting to remit the you should smoking suffering of souls in purgatory (penalties for sin being experienced by them, namely, their remorse for having committed them) are likewise fraudulent. But even among the living, this sort of penalty for sin cannot be remitted by the pope -- for Christ has commanded us to good steps research paper, undergo it as long as we live (Thesis 1). Any indulgence that purports to relieve us of being heartily sorrow for our wrongs is likewise fraudulent. Persuasive On Why Stop Smoking? Worse, it encourages us to good steps writing paper, violate Christ's express command. (And, since the pope, as the Vicar of on why stop smoking, Christ on earth, enjoins us to obey Christ's commands, remission of these penalties for sin is outside his power as pope.) What remains are those penalties imposed by the pope or the canon law, in the context of the sacrament of penance, as administered by priests. [This is the hill admission language of persuasive essay, Theses 5 and two different cultures essay 20. Thesis 34 uses the formula appointed by man (since the pope and the priests are not God) to describe sacramental satisfaction -- i.e., penalties of the sort the priest declares the penitant to owe).] Coming at this category from stop smoking still another point of view, authorities described them as temporal punishment. (See the note to Thesis 2.) Referentially, these terms are all synonyms: that is, they identify the same class of individual things. Their difference lies only in the fact that they pick up these things by different handles, approaching them from different angles, i.e., via different relationships they have with other things. Theses 7-8 focus on Tetzel's claim that the good steps writing research indulgence he was selling was issued by persuasive essay on why stop smoking, the pope and essay had the power to remit guilt for sins. Luther circles back to this theme later on, in Theses 75-76.
Theses 8-29 focus on Tetzel's claim that that indulgence was issued by the pope and had the power to remit the penalties owed by souls in purgatory. Theses 30-52 focus on persuasive on why you should smoking the risks, in Tetzel's behavior, for the people who are induced to steps research, buy his indulgences -- i.e., the misunderstandings about justification that are perpetrated among the living. (In passing -- Theses 35-37 -- his remarks touch again on the absurdity of Tetzel's claims about the purgatory.) The emphasis is upon the peril these misunderstandings pose for the soul of the naive clientele. In Theses 30-40, the chief emphasis here is the necessity, for sinners, of a proper understanding of the requirement for genuine contrition , and the way in which indiscriminate peddling of indulgences implicitly preaches the stop contrary. In Theses 41-46, the writing comparison essay emphasis shifts the risks that lie in presenting purchase of pardons as instances of good works, when, in their effect on the soul, or what they signify about the condition of the soul, is far inferior to persuasive essay you should stop smoking, what is accomplished by works of charity. Thesis 52 sums up this line of attack. [??Thesis 47: does it fit in this organizational scheme? Or does it belong with Theses 48-51??] From this point on, Luther's organizational strategy loosens even further.
For one thing, it is clear that he likes to return to certain themes within new contexts. Moreover, as we have already seen, he sometimes takes the opportunity to tuck in theses (for example, Theses 50-51) that are marginal to the logical categorization that defines the main line of development at the moment (Theses 30-49 + 52). Sometime the stimulus for sheet doing this seems to be that Luther has entered upon a certain rhetorical device (e.g., the repetition of an opening formula, like Christians are to be taught that . ) which carries its own power of suggestion for what could be usefully included at a given moment. After Thesis 52 , there does not seem to be a definite overall pattern of organization at work, although there are clearly stretches within which Luther is focusing on a particular theme (e.g., what are the true Treasures of the Church? [ Theses 56-68 ]) or a rhetorical turn (e.g., Theses 81-91 , where the move is to point out persuasive essay how the pardons being sold by essay gulag, Tetzel bring the pope into essay on why you should smoking, disrepute with the laity by stimulating them to sarcastic impieties that nevertheless seem plausible on the false assumption that the pope supports the sale of such pardons). 7. The priest is written sheet language God's vicar insofar as the on why stop pope is the Vicar of Christ and writing comparison essay the priest is a vicar of the pope.
See note 5 above. Thesis 7 says, then, that remission of essay on why smoking, guilt, though it is done only by God, is something God has for his own reasons chosen to do only for those who submit themselves to writing comparison, the Church, and, as part of doing this, participate in the sacraments (here, specifically, the sacrament of penance, though communion is also a part of what is comprehended here). In other words, there is no salvation outside the Church. (Cf. Thesis 38.) Later, Luther doesn't abolish the priesthood. Persuasive Essay You Should Stop? Rather, he declares the doctrine of the priesthood of all believers. (He will, however, declare that penance is not, properly considered, a sacrament.) 20. Plenary remission means full remission. Essay Gulag? (In Thesis 23 the synonymous formula entire remission is used.) Luther concedes the power of the Pope to remit all penalties of only the restricted class of temporal penalties imposed in the sacrament of penance or due under the persuasive stop canons of governing the assignment of satisfactions in penance (in the help writing comparison essay case of sins committed but not yet dealt with by receiving the sacrament of penance).
22. Neither other penalties (for example, those actually due for persuasive stop souls in purgatory) nor guilt attaching to good writing, sins (even venial sins Thesis 76) are within the power of the Pope to remit. Essay On Why? But all indulgences are issued by the Pope. Therefore indulgences can be effective in remitting either the suffering of souls in purgatory or the guilt itself attaching to sin. Hence the claims Tetzel is making for the indulgence he is peddling in the Pope's name is written language b fraudulent (Thesis 24). People are being induced to believe these claims at the peril of their soul (Thesis 32). Persuasive On Why You Should Stop Smoking? For the doctrine of purgatory , and its connection with the two different medieval system of penance, see WH 218 (paragraph 3). Purgatory is the place (or state) in which souls who die in God's grace may expiate venial sins or satisfy divine justice for the temporal punishment still due for remitted mortal sin. The term comes from the past participle of the Latin verb purgare , which means to purge (to purify by getting rid of defilement). How does Luther stand with respect to the bull Salvator Noster (1476)?
Note that Luther's tactic in the Ninety-five Theses is to assume that the Pope is unaware of the doctrinal errors being preached in stop smoking his name by a mad servant, who is betraying his master. The Pope is being offered the opportunity to repudiate Tetzel's behavior. Compare the implicit characterization given of the Pope's personal dispositions in Thesis 50. 23. Note that Luther concedes here that it is possible for some rare individuals to pass directly to essay gulag, heaven. But he does not go so far here as to claim what the persuasive on why stop smoking Church had long insisted on, namely, that the saints die in a state of excess of merit, which then passes into written cover sheet language b, the Treasury of Merit, out of which merits can be drawn to substitute for persuasive essay you should stop the temporal penalties that would otherwise be due for sin. How does this re-definition of the concept of saint square with the particular theory of the steps writing research Treasury of Merit set forth in Pope Clement VI's bull Unigenitus (1343)? On the persuasive on why smoking other hand, are we really authorized to attribute to Luther at essay gulag this moment such a re-definition of the concept of saint as just described? Consider Thesis 58. 27.
One of the jingles attributed to Tetzel went like this. (The rhymes, incidentally, are basically the same in German and English.) As soon as the coin in the coffer rings, The soul from Purgatory springs. 32. Letters of pardon are the documents certifying the granting of an indulgence. (See also Thesis 52.) In this Thesis, is Luther accusing Tetzel and his customers of committing venial, or mortal, sins? 33. The inestimable gift of God by which man is reconciled to God is the divine grace conveyed in the blood of Christ shed in the Crucifixion. 35. By now you should be imagining for yourself what kind of sales pitch Tetzel relied on in convincing people to pay good money to get souls out of purgatory.
Whose souls would he be pointing to? How would he paint them? A confessional license would exempt the holder from the necessity for confession. Why would Luther insist that confession is an essay on why stop essential element in the process by which one achieves justification? 36. Compunction is a synonym for contrition, regret, repentance. (See note on penitence at Thesis 1.) Why does Luther insist that this is an essential element in the process of justification? 42. Along what lines could a case be made that contributing to the Church (and receiving an indulgence) is in itself a work of mercy? (What, supposedly, would the Church be using the contribution to support? [What is the divinely ordained purpose of the Church in the first place, according to traditional doctrine? What is its role in help writing history ?]) 43. Does it strike you here that Luther (writing on this particular occasion, at this particular phase in his thinking) seems to be according a positive value to at least some items in the category of works ? What do you understand to be Luther's ultimate position on persuasive the value and effect of works in the salvational scheme?
Is this Thesis inconsistent with that position, or can it be construed in a fashion that can be made to square with that position? 50. Here we find a claim that must have resonated strongly with those who resented the flow of hill admission essay, capital from the German North to Italy. 52-56. Here Luther lays out a theory of what constitutes the Treasury of the Church. How does it compare with the theory elaborated by Clement VI in smoking the bull Unigenitus (1343)?
62. Notice that it is not clear in assignment cover sheet b the Ninety-five Theses themselves what a crucial role Thesis 62 will play in future Lutheran theology: Luther does not explicitly spell out the implications. But, retrospectively, can you see how this claim was destined to become the central bombshell in the breach between Luther and the Church of Rome? 65. What does Luther mean here by the phrase men of riches? Is he referring to people with lots of money and property? How would you explain your answer in the context, for example, of the thesis that follows this one, #66? 83. What does Luther consider mistaken about the practice of performing funeral masses and anniversary masses for the deceased (masses for the dead celebrated on the anniversaries of the death of the person in question)? What is the purpose of these ceremonies? (What is prayed for in them?)
In what sense is it a confidence game to persuasive essay, accept money for performing such services? (Is the issue of simony also at stake here, i.e., separately and distinctly?) 86. Does the tone here strike you as completely consistent with that in Thesis 50? 93. If we read this thesis carefully in the context of #92, which immediately precedes it, and which is report writing couched in grammatically parallel form, what are we to understand as the sense of the included claim that there is no cross? 94.-95. Can you see how Luther has crafted his conclusion to persuasive essay on why you should stop, collaborate with Theses 1-4 at the very beginning, to form a frame for the rest? Does Luther think it is correct and spiritually healthy for a person to seek to escape just punishment? (What evidence can you give for your answer?) What is the cultures essay proper attitude to persuasive essay on why stop smoking, take towards the suffering that results from Original Sin? What elements of seton admission essay, it are we under an obligation to resist? What elements of it are we under an obligation to accept even to persuasive essay on why stop, affirm? The force of your answer will come home to you to the degree that you explicitly recall for yourself what the effects of hill admission essay, Original Sin are, according to the theology we constructed in the spirit of Augustine upon the Genesis account of the Fall of Mankind.
Go to the Home Page for English 233 (Introduction to Western Humanities: Baroque Enlightenment). Suggestions are welcome. Please send your comments to firstname.lastname@example.org . Contents copyright © 1997 by Lyman A. Baker. Permission is granted for non-commercial educational use; all other rights reserved.
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FREE IELTS LESSON – THE GENERAL WRITING TEST – TASK 2. Task 2 in the General Training Writing Test is more important than task 1. You have to write more, it’s a more difficult task and it is worth more to your final band for writing as more weight is given to Task 2 than to Task 1. Practice on IELTS practice tests is important for both tasks. The IELTS General Training Writing Test. The IELTS General Training Writing Test lasts for 1 hour and includes 2 tasks. Task 1 is a letter and you must write at least 150 words. You should spend about persuasive essay on why stop 20 minutes out good steps writing paper, of the hour for Task 1. Task 2 is an essay and you must write at least 250 words. You should spend about 40 minutes for Task 2.
The Task for persuasive essay you should the IELTS General Training Task 2 Writing. The IELTS General Training Writing Task 2 asks you to write a short essay of essay gulag, a minimum of 250 words. The essay is usually a discussion of a subject of persuasive on why you should, general interest. Hill! You may have to present and justify your opinion about something, give the solution to a problem or compare differing ideas or viewpoints. It is essay stop smoking important that you consider finding IELTS practice tests, so that you can practice this part of the IELTS in order to achieve your true potential. Marking for the IELTS General Training Task 2 Writing. Your task will be marked in four areas.
You will get a mark from seton hill admission essay, 1 to 9 on Task response, Coherence and Cohesion, Lexical Resource and Grammatical Range and Accuracy. Your final band for Task 2 will be effectively an persuasive on why you should, average of the four marks awarded in these areas. Task 2 writing is more important than Task 1 and to calculate the two different cultures, final writing mark, more weight is assigned to the Task 2 mark than to persuasive essay on why you should Task 1’s mark. To get a good overall mark though, both tasks have to technical report writing be well answered so don’t hold back on stop smoking, Task 1 or give yourself too little time to answer it properly. This mark grades you on the content of cultures essay, your essay. It marks whether you have fully addressed all parts of task. The examiner wants you in your essay to have a fully developed answer to the question given with relevent and persuasive essay on why stop, extended ideas and support. Help Writing! The support is the facts that you use to back up your ideas.
Support is very important in Task 2. You need to bring in facts from your own experience in persuasive on why stop, order to support your ideas. These two are interrelated which is why they are done together. Cohesion is how your writing fits together. Does your writing with its ideas and content flow logically? Coherence is how you are making yourself understood and whether the reader of your writing understands what you are saying. Essay! An example of essay you should, bad coherence and cohesion would be as follows: 1 We went to the beach because it was raining.
Probably the writer of this sentence does not mean “because” as people don’t usually go to the beach when it is raining. The writer should have written: 2 We went to the beach although it was raining. Sentence 1 has made a cohesion and coherence error (as well as a vocabulary one). Essay Gulag! “Because” does not join the persuasive stop, ideas of the sentence together correctly and, as a result, the reader does not understand what the writer wants to good research say. This is an exaggerated example but it shows what I mean. Persuasive On Why You Should Stop! Good cohesion and coherence is not noticeable as it allows the writing to be read easily. Two Different! Good cohesion and coherence also includes good and appropriate paragraph usage. This area looks at the your choice of words.
The marker will look at persuasive essay on why smoking, whether the right words are used and whether they are used at assignment b, the right time in the right place and in the right way. To get a good mark here, the persuasive essay on why you should smoking, word choice should not only be accurate but wide ranging, natural and sophisticated. Grammatical Range and Accuracy. Here the examiner will mark your appropriate, flexible and accurate use of two different cultures essay, grammatical structures. Persuasive Essay On Why You Should Stop Smoking! Many people are worried about their grammar but, as you can see, grammar is written only one section of four used to grade your writing. IELTS is much more interested in communication rather than grammatical accuracy. It is, of course, still part of the persuasive essay on why you should stop, marking scheme and important as such. Paragraphing for two different the IELTS General Training Task 2 Writing. This is a very easy thing to do but it can have an enormous effect on essay you should, the clarity of comparison essay, your writing. I have said this for Task 1 but for Task 2 it’s is even more important. In Task 2 you will be writing more and it is therefore more important to divide your writing up into divisions to make it easier to on why you should stop smoking read.
Very often people use no paragraphing and the examiner is faced with a “sea” of help writing comparison, writing with no breaks from start to finish. For me, the best writings are those where there are paragraphs separated by persuasive essay on why smoking an empty line and also indented. In this way your ideas are separated clearly. It shows and cultures essay, gives organization to your writing and makes it more readable. For Task 2, have a paragraph break after your introduction, and then for every differing section of persuasive you should smoking, your separate ideas with the seton hill admission essay, supporting evidence. Then have a final paragraph for your conclusion. You should aim to have 3 or 4 paragraphs plus the introduction and conclusion. Look at this section on stop smoking, paragraphing. It is essay gulag divided into 5 separate paragraphs dividing the 5 different areas that I want to present to you, the persuasive essay you should, reader. The 5 areas are: Paragraph 1 Why paragraphing is important for Task 2. Paragraph 2 How to divide your paragraphing.
Paragraph 3 Where your paragraph divisions should occur. Paragraph 4 The division of paragraphs in this section. Paragraph 5 Explaining the comparison with this section and the one below to show how paragraphing can work. Below I will repeat paragraphs 1 – 4 of this section on paragraphing but I am going to remove all the paragraphs and line breaks and make it a “sea of writing” as I said can happen above. I hope you feel that this section is easier to understand than the one below!! (By the way, I haven’t used line breaks through this entire tutorial as there would be too many and it would be too confusing).
This is a very easy thing to do but it can have an enormous effect on the clarity of seton essay, your writing. I have said this for Task 1 but for persuasive on why smoking Task 2 it’s is comparison essay even more important. In Task 2 you will be writing more and it is therefore more important to divide your writing up into divisions to make it easier to read. Very often people use no paragraphing and the examiner is faced with a “sea” of writing with no breaks from start to finish. For me, the best writings are those where there are paragraphs separated by an empty line and also indented. In this way your ideas are separated clearly. It shows and gives organization to your writing and makes it more readable. For Task 2, have a paragraph break after your introduction, and then for every differing section of your separate ideas with the evidence. Then have a final paragraph for persuasive you should your conclusion. You should aim to have 3 or 4 paragraphs plus the introduction and conclusion.
Look at this section on paragraphing. Good Steps Writing Paper! It is essay smoking divided into written sheet language 4 separate paragraphs dividing the 4 different areas that I want to present to you the reader. The 4 areas are: Paragraph 1: Why paragraphing is important for task 2: Paragraph 2: How to divide your paragraphing. Paragraph 3: Where your paragraph divisions should occur. Essay On Why You Should Stop! Paragraph 4: An example to show you how paragraphing works. I hope you feel that the first section was easier to understand than this second one! Ideas to essay gulag Think About for the IELTS General Training Task 2 Writing. The exam paper recommends that you spend about 40 minutes on this question and you should, this is essay gulag about right. Remember that Task 2 gives more to your final writing band and so you should make sure that you have enough time after Task 1 to properly answer Task 2. Some students do Task 2 first in order to make sure that Task 2 is answered well before they get onto Task 1. Essay On Why You Should Smoking! There is no problem with this but make sure you write the 150 words to give a good answer for Task 1 as well. So, whatever you decide to do about admission your approach to persuasive essay you should stop Task 1 and Task 2 in the writing paper, make sure that you spend approximately 20 minutes on Task 1 and 40 minutes on Task 2. This should give you the right amount of time to good writing research paper provide good answers to both tasks.
Practice from persuasive you should stop smoking, IELTS practice tests on writing both tasks in under an hour is an important part of your preparation for the IELTS exam. Although this sounds very straightforward, people don’t often properly answer the question set and therefore don’t get the band that they should even if the writing is very good. First of all read the question very carefully in writing, order to see exactly what it asks you. Very often there will be more than 1 part to the question; sometimes even 3 or 4 parts. When you produce your answer you must answer all the different parts of the question. How much you produce on each part depends on how important you think it is. You have to write a formal academic English essay of the type that would be required for teachers or tertiary education courses. Formulate and develop an argument and show a personal response. Give your opinions and back them up with evidence and examples. Your answer should persuade, be consistent and develop logically towards a conclusion, which answers all parts of the question. Another important basic is to write at least 250 words.
Writing less does not answer the question, which tells you to write at least 250 words. If you write less than 250 words, the examiner marking your paper will give you a maximum of 5 for Arguments, Ideas and Evidence or even less. It is no problem to write more than the 250 words; there is persuasive stop smoking no upward word limit on the essay. Essay! Time is your only persuasive essay constraint. Time is your only constraint. Writing more than the minimum under the time limit requires practice on proper questions from IELTS practice tests. The question wants you to produce an essay. Therefore don’t give a list of seton hill essay, numbered notes (your paragraphs should not be numbered). Give the examiner a proper essay with an introduction, a main body with your ideas and smoking, evidence and a conclusion, all divided of course with the paragraphing techniques discussed above. Many students that I have taught have regarded writing an essay plan as a waste of report thesis, time. The only answer I can give is stop that it depends on written assignment language b, the individual.
If you are a good essay writer who can automatically organize your ideas and structure in your head so well that you can produce a good structured essay without planning, then I say that’s it’s fine not to on why smoking write an essay plan. Also if you’re really short of written assignment cover sheet b, time and you need to get writing on page, then you don’t want to waste time on planning. You Should Stop Smoking! However, if none of these conditions apply, then 1 or 2 minutes thinking about your ideas and how you are going to good present them will not be wasted. I’m not saying that you should spend 10 minutes on this. Essay On Why Stop! Just take a scrap of paper and jot down some ideas that you are going to use in your essay. Then you can divide the ideas into 3 or 4 paragraphs in a logical order. This shouldn’t take you long and essay gulag, the structure that this will give your essay will be well worth the time that you spend doing it. The above skills do not come easily and essay stop smoking, it is essay important that you practice planning with proper IELTS writing questions from IELTS practice tests. First of all, don’t repeat any part of the question in your introduction. This is not your own work and therefore will be disregarded by the examiner and deducted from the word count. You can use individual words but be careful of persuasive on why, using “chunks” of the question text.
Your introduction should first say what you understand by the question. Then give the main issue or issues that you intend to bring into your answer. Seton Essay! Don’t go into persuasive stop smoking any detail; you can save that for essay gulag the later paragraphs. Finally, the question often asks you to take up a position over an issue. Persuasive On Why You Should! There is no right answer for essay gulag putting your views at the start and then explaining this through the essay, or developing your opinion though your essay and stating your final stance at the end. I personally like the opinion at the start of the essay. Quickly and clearly answer the question, making your attitude plain. Don’t give any reasons. Again, that’s what the on why you should, body of written language, your essay is for. You don’t have to do it this way though.
You can wait until your conclusion to give your position as regards the question. You should aim to have 3 or 4 paragraphs in your answer. This is not exact. You can write more or fewer paragraphs, as your answer requires. Persuasive Essay On Why! Remember you’ve only got about good writing research paper 40 minutes to on why smoking cover all the question areas so don’t be too ambitious and try to write too much. In the body of your essay you should do several things. Help Writing Comparison Essay! You need to examine all parts of the question. Remember there is often more than 1 question contained in the essay question text. You need to look at all that is asked and look at both sides of every issue.
IELTS essay questions usually ask you something which has two or more points of view, and essay on why, you need to seton hill consider both sides of every argument no matter what your opinion is. Look below at the example. The question asks whether or not you believe whether societies should use capital punishment. There are, of on why you should stop smoking, course, two points of view: (1) capital punishment should be used and. (2) capital punishment shouldn’t be used. Let’s say for example that you don’t believe that capital punishment should be used by societies. No matter what point of view you have, you should look at both sides, though naturally your writing will favour the position that you have taken. Give the reasons why you don’t believe in capital punishment but then look at the opposing view and say why you don’t accept it. In this way you will show the good research, reader your powers of analysis when looking at such an issue. Don’t forget that when you have finished looking at this issue there is a second part of the stop, question to be analysed too. As we said earlier, your ideas need to good writing research paper be supported by examples and it is in the body of your essay that they should appear.
For every idea that you present try and give an example from your own experience that shows that your idea is right. An example from on why, your own experience means something that you know from your life, from your country’s news or history or anything that you have read anywhere. You can actually invent examples if you need as long as they seem realistic and cultures essay, believable. The examiner is probably not going to research anything you write about. The example below should illustrate what we have been discussing here.
This doesn’t need to be a long paragraph. You need to sum up your points providing a final perspective on your topic. All the conclusion needs is three or four strong sentences, which do not need to follow any set formula. Persuasive Essay On Why Smoking! Simply review the main points (being careful not to restate them exactly or repeat all your examples) and briefly describe your feelings about the topic; this provides an answer to all parts of the question. An anecdote can also end your essay in a useful way.
An Example of the IELTS General Training Task 2 Writing. It’s very difficult to visualize and understand all the assignment cover sheet language, things that I have said above. You need to practice with good quality questions from essay smoking, IELTS practice tests. Here I will try and help comparison essay, provide you with an example question and then go through the stages of thought to on why you should stop smoking show you how to approach an IELTS General Training Writing Task 2 essay. Here is good research a possible question that would be typical for a Task 2 essay question. “Do you believe that societies ought to enforce capital punishment or Are there alternative forms of punishment that would be better used?” First of all you need to consider the persuasive on why stop, question.
What does it ask? Straight away, you can see that it asks 2 things. It wants to know if you believe that society should use capital punishment (cp) and it also wants to know if you can offer any alternatives to capital punishment. Seton Hill Admission! Your answer should give a balanced view of both parts of this question. What is important to realize is that there is persuasive essay on why you should stop smoking no correct answer here.
You can present any point of view as long as you can support it. So, in your planning stage you should have a roadmap for the introduction, each paragraph and the conclusion. Here is written cover sheet my brief plan for the essay. What cp is. Where it’s used. (not my country).
Differing opinions. I don’t believe in cp. Essay On Why You Should Stop! There are alternative punishments. Inhumane – we shouldn’t sink to the level of criminals. We can get convictions wrong; prisoners can be released if there’s an cover language, error.
Mentally ill. Examples. Persuasive Stop Smoking! Alternative punishments: life means life; hospitals for criminally insane. Costs more but society has a duty to care. Many countries favour it and they say it works. Prisons too full. Killers deserve nothing less. Some crimes deserve it. Not my morals though. I don’t agree.
We can do other things. Avoid mistakes and make modern society a humane one. The above is a basic plan of how I want to write my essay. It’s not rigid. I can change my ideas and format as I write if I feel I can do better.
I can also add things that I’ve forgotten as the essay goes on. It’s normal of course for you to have new, good ideas as you write and the skill is to get them into your essay without upsetting the balance of the essay. Written Assignment Sheet B! How do you do this? It’s practice again. You won’t get good at essay on why you should, writing essays and writing research paper, adapting your writing well without practice with relevant questions from persuasive essay on why you should stop smoking, quality IELTS practice tests. So, below is an technical report writing, example essay using the plan above as a basis. Example Essay for the IELTS General Training Task 2 Writing. Capital punishment is the on why stop smoking, killing of a criminal for a crime that he has committed. Previously most countries employed this method of punishment but nowadays it is much less widely used. Assignment Cover Language! I personally do not believe that societies today should use capital punishment and persuasive essay stop smoking, I also believe that there are alternative punishments that can be used.
My main argument against hill, capital punishment is that I believe we do not have the right to kill another human being regardless of the crime. I don’t believe in the old religious maxim of “an eye for essay on why you should stop smoking an eye.” Modern societies shouldn’t turn to such barbaric punishments. Another argument against capital punishment is that people can be wrongly convicted and executed. If a man is in prison, he can be released if later proved not guilty. If he is dead, there is nothing that can be done. In the UK, a group of supposed terrorists were convicted of murder in Birmingham in essay gulag, the 1970s. They were proved innocent about 15 years later and persuasive essay on why smoking, released. If they had been executed, innocent people would have died. There are alternative punishments available.
For bad crimes prison life sentences can be given with criminals imprisoned for the rest of their lives. Also a lot of horrific crimes are committed by people who are mentally sick. These people are not responsible for their actions and technical report writing, can be kept safely and permanently in persuasive essay you should stop smoking, secure hospitals. Yes, this costs a lot more but I believe it is the good writing, duty of society to do this. There are arguments for capital punishment. Many people feel its threat stops serious crime and that criminals deserve nothing less.
It’s cheaper and essay on why you should stop smoking, keeps the good steps research, prisons manageable. I can understand this point of view but I cannot agree with it. So, in conclusion, I don’t believe in essay stop, capital punishment, as there are less barbaric alternatives available. We can avoid horrific mistakes and report writing, make modern society a humane one. Final Comment for the IELTS General Training Task 2 Writing.
I hope that this essay shows how to approach the Task 2 question and illustrates the ideas that I have written above. Finally I will leave you with the message that I always do. To really improve your skills at writing essays, you need to practice. Persuasive! Get some essay titles from good quality IELTS practice tests, sit down when you get the chance, give yourself 40 minutes and write some essays. Try and do it as I have directed with a couple of minutes for planning, as this will train you to seton admission make a better-constructed essay in the long run.
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Persuasive Speech on Why You Shouldn t Smoke by Caroline Shreve
essay of commentary Chances are your professor has given you an assignment to write an essay that reflects on a piece of literature, or another body of work like a film or play. Do you know how to write a good essay? One basic way to elevate the quality of your next essay is to stop summarizing and start commentating. And it’s easier than you may think. In this post, I’ll explain the persuasive essay on why stop difference between summary and commentary. Then, I’ll show you how to put commentary to good use to make your next essay assignment awesome. How to Write a Good Essay Part 1: Learn the Difference between Commentary and Summary. You need to seton admission essay understand the difference between commentary and summary. Persuasive On Why! While both writing styles can be used to written sheet b discuss another piece of work (like a play, book, movie, or poem), this is persuasive on why you should, about the sum total of essay gulag their similarities. Here are the three main differences between summary and commentary:
Summary is a brief account giving the persuasive essay you should smoking main points of something. Commentary is a series of explanations and interpretations. Summary is surface. Commentary is deep. Summary is regurgitation. Commentary is original. There is only one way to provide a summary : You read or view a work, and then write down a recap of what the work is written language, all about. However, there are many ways to provide commentary , including: Here are some real life examples of essay stop summary and essay gulag, commentary: A summary is something you’d read in a movie description or on the back of a book, like this summary of The Godfather: Part II from IMDb: Commentary is what you’d read in a film or book review, like this one from Rotten Tomatoes:
As you can see, the main difference between these two write-ups of The Godfather, Part II is the essay you should smoking IMDb summary includes no opinion or evaluation, while the seton hill essay Rotten Tomatoes review includes the opinion “strong performances” and persuasive on why stop, the evaluation “set(s) new standards for sequels that have yet to be matched or broken.” How to two different cultures Write a Good Essay Part 2: Sample Essay. I know you’re supposed to be writing an essay right now, so don’t procrastinate by persuasive, watching this awesome, comedic zombie movie. Admission! But, as soon as you turn this essay in, if you haven’t seen it already, watch it! Seriously, it’s so good.
In the meantime, for our lesson, watch this YouTube clip of one of persuasive essay smoking my favorite scenes from the film. It will serve as the body of work that I’m going to commentate on. First, let me show you how I would write a summary of this scene: In this scene from the written cover 2004 movie Shaun of the Dead , Shaun (played by Simon Pegg) wakes up with a hangover and walks to the convenience store to buy a soda and essay stop smoking, an ice cream. In his hungover condition, he does not notice anything that is going on technical report, around him. Persuasive Essay On Why! On his way to the store, he walks by what appears to be zombies roaming the street. There is mayhem all around him. Two Different Essay! A car window is smashed and the alarm is blaring, a person is running for his life away from zombies, there are bloody handprints on the cooler, and the convenience store clerk is missing. You Should! On his way home, Shaun passes even more zombies, including one who he mistakes for sheet language a homeless person. When the zombie approaches him, Shaun says, “No, I don’t have any change.
I didn’t even have enough for the shop.” He makes it home safely and turns on the TV, ignoring the news reports about the on why you should zombie invasion. While this may be a perfectly good summary of this scene, it doesn’t offer any additional insight into the film. My summary simply regurgitates what happened, play-by-play. There’s really no point in essay reading this summary; instead, you could just watch the scene and learn everything I just discussed, and you’ll have more fun doing it. When your professor asks you to provide thoughtful commentary on a piece of work, you can be sure that he or she does not want you to just give a detailed recap of the events. This does not show that you’ve put forth any effort. In fact, writing that summary took me under a minute, with little thought. The one thing a summary can provide is background for your commentary.
You want to give your reader some context on essay you should, the piece of work, while also providing your insightful and opinionated commentary. Let’s start working on this now. How to good steps writing paper Write a Good Essay: Offer an Opinion. First, I’m going to insert an opinion into my summary. To make it easier for you to follow, I’ll highlight my opinion in green . In this clever and satirical scene from the 2004 movie Shaun of the Dead , Shaun (played by Simon Pegg) wakes up with a hangover and walks to the convenience store to buy a soda and essay you should, an ice cream. How to two different Write a Good Essay: Offer an on why you should stop, Interpretation. Next, I’ll insert an seton, interpretation . In his hungover condition, he does not notice anything that is on why you should stop, going on around him. This provides insight on hill admission, how Shaun, like many of stop us, lives his day-to-day life, almost as a zombie himself, just going through the motions without noticing the seton admission world in which he lives.
How to persuasive Write a Good Essay: Offer some Insight. Next, I’ll insert some insight . On his way to the store, he walks by what appears to be zombies roaming the street. Two Different Cultures! There is mayhem all around him, but this mayhem isn’t a far cry from Shaun’s daily reality . Essay On Why Smoking! A car window is smashed and the alarm is blaring. Today it is from writing comparison essay, a zombie, but on a normal day, a regular thief could have smashed it . Essay On Why Smoking! A person is running for his life away from zombies, but on good steps writing, a normal day, it could be a person running to catch the bus . How to Write a Good Essay: Offer Your Personal Reaction. Next, I’ll insert my personal reaction : There are bloody handprints on the cooler, and the convenience store clerk is missing, which, along with the creepy music soundtrack, gives a sense of impending doom as the persuasive essay on why stop smoking viewer watches Shaun obliviously bumble along. How to seton hill essay Write a Good Essay: Offer an Evaluation.
Finally, I’ll insert my evaluation and a little more opinion and insight . On his way home, Shaun passes even more zombies, including one who he mistakes for a homeless person. When the zombie approaches him, Shaun says, “No, I don’t have any change. I didn’t even have enough for the shop.” Incidents like these make this film the perfect satirical comedy about essay on why stop smoking what it means to be alive in the 21 st century . This is emphasized again when Shaun makes it home safely and turns on the TV, ignoring the news reports about the zombies. Language B! This brilliant satire points to the sad fact that a typical person’s life is already so horrible that a zombie apocalypse wouldn’t even mark a change for the worse. So, how does my final Shaun of the persuasive essay on why stop smoking Dead commentary look as a whole? Check it out:
In this clever and satirical scene from the report writing thesis 2004 movie Shaun of the essay on why stop smoking Dead , Shaun (played by Simon Pegg) wakes up with a hangover and help essay, walks to persuasive essay on why smoking the convenience store to thesis buy a soda and an ice cream. In his hungover condition, he does not notice anything that is going on around him. This provides insight on how Shaun, like many of essay on why you should smoking us, lives his day-to-day life, almost as a zombie himself, just going through the motions without noticing the world in which he lives. On his way to cultures the store, he walks by what appears to essay on why stop be zombies roaming the street. There is mayhem all around him, but this mayhem isn’t a far cry from Shaun’s daily reality . A car window is smashed and the alarm is blaring. Today it is from a zombie, but on a normal day, a regular thief could have smashed it . A person is running for his life away from zombies, but on cultures, a normal day, it could be a person running to catch the bus. There are bloody handprints on the cooler, and the convenience store clerk is missing, which, along with the persuasive essay you should smoking creepy music soundtrack, gives a sense of impending doom as the viewer watches Shaun obliviously bumble along. On his way home, Shaun passes even more zombies, including one who he mistakes for good steps paper a homeless person. When the zombie approaches him, Shaun says, “No, I don’t have any change. I didn’t even have enough for persuasive essay stop smoking the shop.” Incidents like these make this film the perfect satirical comedy about what it means to be alive in b the 21 st century . This is emphasized again when Shaun makes it home safely and turns on the TV, ignoring the news reports about the zombies. This brilliant satire points to essay you should stop the sad fact that a typical person’s life is already so horrible that a zombie apocalypse wouldn’t even mark a change for the worse . How to Write a Good Essay Part 3: Final Rules to written cover sheet language b Consider.
Now that you’ve seen commentary in action, I want to point out a couple more important rules that will help you write a good essay. Rule One: Avoid Subjective Phrases. Even when giving commentary in on why you should smoking the form of an essay gulag, opinion, avoid using subjective phrases like “I hope,” “I believe,” and “I think.” These are just throwaway phrases. As I discussed in my previous post about writing a cover letter, these phrases are redundant (you wrote the essay, so it’s obvious you think, believe, or hope what is written) and they reduce your credibility. Rule Two: Maintain a 2:1 Ratio of persuasive essay on why you should smoking Commentary to seton hill essay Summary. In general, you should provide approximately two points of commentary for every specific detail you offer. While summary is still important for persuasive giving your reader context, commentary is critical to writing a good essay. Rule Three: Follow Your Instructor’s Rules. Sometimes your instructor will want you to only offer opinion; other times, he’ll want you to only offer insight or interpretation. Good Paper! Other times, you’ll have more freedom as to what type of commentary you include in your essay.
The important thing to remember is to persuasive on why smoking follow your instructor’s rules for the assignment. If you need more help learning about how to write a better essay, I recommend reading this post about how one teacher used movie reviews to help students improve writing, and check out this cool slideshow about writing research paper commentary. And of course, don’t forget the final step for writing a good essay: editing! Have your essay edited by a Kibin editor, a peer, or a parent. How about you?
Have you struggled with using too much summary in essay on why you should stop smoking your essays? Or, do you find writing commentary to be fun? Let us know in the comments. Psst. 98% of Kibin users report better grades! Get inspiration from over 500,000 example essays. About the two different cultures Author. Naomi Tepper is a former Kibin editor, the persuasive on why stop former content manager for the Kibin blog, and written assignment, forever a word nerd. Pretty long, but I grabbed what I came for. Thank you Naomi.
— Please reply above this line — ## Naomi replied, on persuasive on why you should smoking, Mar 31 @ 7:37am (PDT): ## Conversation started by seton hill, Disqus, on Mar 30 @ 2:52pm (PDT): A NEW COMMENT WAS POSTED ON KIBIN BLOG  This comment is awaiting moderator approval. Pretty long, but I grabbed what I came for. Essay You Should Smoking! Thank you Naomi. 5:52 p.m., Sunday March 30. Moderate This Comment By Email.
Email address: [emailprotected]  | IP address: 220.127.116.11. Reply to help this email with “Delete”, “Approve”, or “Spam”, or moderate from the DISQUS MODERATION PANEL . You’re receiving this message because you’re signed up to persuasive receive notifications about activity on threads authored by kibin. You can unsubscribe  from emails about activity on essay gulag, threads. authored by kibin by replying to this email with “unsubscribe” or reduce the rate with which these emails are sent by adjusting your notification settings .  /HTTP://REDIRECT.DISQUS.COM/URL?IMPRESSION=89144BEC-B855-11E3-9808-00259034104EFORUM=633029THREAD=1935738242BEHAVIOR=CLICKURL=HTTPS%3A%2F%2FWWW.KIBIN.COM%2FBLOG%2FHOW-TO-WRITE-A-GOOD-ESSAY-COMMENTARY%2F%23COMMENT-1311091921%3AL-RAIE1CUBNO3ZWGARTXKWVJHNUPOST=1311091921TYPE=NOTIFICATION.POST.MODERATOREVENT=EMAIL  mailto:[emailprotected] You’re welcome! Glad you found what you were looking for! Thank you so much. This was way more help compared to the tips my teachers give me!
Hi Becky, aww thanks! I’m so happy that you found this post helpful. Cheers! Naomi. Thank you, Naomi! You’re so welcome!
I love Shaun of Dead and end of essay smoking movie clip got me good. The hand come out the no where scary crap out me. Help Writing! T.T Good luck with your book, hope good well for you. Thank you very much. Haha.
I agree that movie is crazy good, and that scene just makes me shiver! its the same format for news article :-)? Hi Eve, good question! Yes, the essay on why smoking same principles apply to commentating on a news article. Thanks for reading! Wow, thank you for writing essay this very detailed information.. On Why! it seems you can apply it to any sort of written sheet language satire or as an you should stop smoking, opinionated response to any form of literature.
I also struggle with this sort of seton hill essay thing.. and yes.. as writers we must all know the differences between summaries and our own personal input (Commentary). But as its been shown here, its all about the presentation.. I have to work on that. Hi! Thanks for reading! I’m pleased the information has helped. Yes, writing effective commentary is always about presentation. Good luck! does it all apply the essay on why you should same for an entire book instead of just an scene, like you did?Would I need more paragraphs because it’s a whole book or do I just pick the main scenes and have the same amount of seton hill admission essay paragraphs as you did?
Great question! My example is based on a very short scene, so it’s okay for it to be very short. Commentating on an entire novel will most likely require more writing than my example shows. I would suggest you choose a specific aspect of the essay you should stop novel to evaluate (perhaps based on the requirements of your assignment) and then pick and choose scenes throughout the book that support your evaluation. Write commentary similar to cultures essay my example for EACH scene from the novel that you chose. Put those all together, making sure to persuasive essay you should stop smoking use appropriate transitions (https://www.kibin.com/blog/how-comedians-teach-you-to-write-good-transition-sentences/). Assignment Cover Sheet Language! Don’t forget to write an persuasive essay stop, introduction with a thesis in two different the beginning and a conclusion at persuasive you should, the end. Here’s one possible outline you can follow to help: https://www.kibin.com/blog/write-5-paragraph-essay-outline/ Great tips.
Nice article. Interesting, that appears to written cover sheet language b have been directly lifted from the infographic I created for this blog. https://www.kibin.com/essay-writing-blog/writing-an-argumentative-essay/ What do they say? Imitation is the highest form of you should stop smoking flattery? Thanks for sharing. this is great article. I would suggest you choose a specific aspect of the novel to steps research evaluate. (perhaps based on the requirements of persuasive stop smoking your assignment) and then pick and. choose scenes throughout the book that support your evaluation. You post is really useful. I believe that while writing an assay the most important thing is Be Yourself.
Nice post. I was. really looking for some useful essay writing tips and. must say, these are the best ones I’ve stumbled upon! I’m sure that there are no bad advice. I also agree that if you define a style of two different cultures writing commentary or summary. It will be easier to approach the writing of the persuasive on why stop text. It is essay, important to on why write in essay gulag the first person.
If you want, you can use over persuasive essay you should smoking college paper writing service. The best article on writing commentary essays. Thank you for sharing your step-by-step guides. You’re welcome. Thanks for assignment sheet b the comment. #128578; That was great, what an on why stop smoking, inspiration that would be! Thank you so much for your tips. Hi Janice– thanks for the comment. Writing Thesis! Super happy to help out.
Woow this article was awesome and very clear! Thank you!! But I wonder, does this apply also to academic essays?? Yes, absolutely!! Thanks for persuasive stop smoking reading. #128578; This guide helps me a lot, definitely will share this essay writing help to my friends.
Heading off to tweet this awesome guide. Awesome! Glad we could help, Carlos. Thanks for reading and good research paper, sharing. love this. question: under the “personal reaction” examples you also have this: “which, along with the creepy music soundtrack,” but it is not in a different color. It’s not summary. Would you call this part personal reaction?
Or opinion? Good catch! My using the on why you should stop smoking word “creepy” to describe the soundtrack would qualify as me stating an essay gulag, opinion here. I can’t be sure that everyone would think it creepy. This is only slightly distinct from a personal reaction ,which would be more like “The soundtrack creeped me out.” #128578; Thank you, Naomi! I’m an academic writing adviser and this is a super useful, clear, and thorough example I can use for my students. Essay Smoking! Thank you Naomi. That’s amazing! I’m so happy to technical writing hear it.
Thanks for your kind comment. #128578; Well, this article is quite informative. I will share it with my mates so they can know about it. Awesome! Glad it helped you and thanks for sharing. #128578; I still do not understand about the commentary my teacher said in our first commentary that you need to explain what is going on in the quotation but it still sounds like summarizing and when she explains waht to do it still sounnds like summarizinng. The difference can be really confusing. When you use commentary, you’re often adding an opinion or evaluation — not *just* stating what is going on in the quotation. Persuasive Essay On Why You Should Stop! You might try asking yourself if your commentary answers the question, “So what?” So if you write “In this quotation, [author] is describing [X],” and hill, you ask yourself “So what?”, you might realize that you can add on to this sentence with something like: “…which is persuasive essay on why stop, important because [reason 1] and [reason 2].” Then you’re not only saying what is happening in seton admission essay the quotation (summarizing), but you’re showing the larger significance of what is happening — that’s what commentary is for essay stop smoking #128578; i usually don’t comment, but i think the two different topic sentence has a part that kinda sound like a summary. Do you mean this sentence: “In this clever and satirical scene from the 2004 movie Shaun of the Dead, Shaun (played by Simon Pegg) wakes up with a hangover and walks to the convenience store to buy a soda and an ice cream”?
You’re right that it’s almost a summary — what sets it apart is the “clever and satirical” phrase, since that inserts an opinion #128578; But, the other things is very good, thx for the tips.