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Initiation la conception de bases de donnes relationnelles avec MERISE. Ce cours est conu pour ceux qui souhaitent s'initier rapidement la conception d'une base de donnes relationnelle l'aide de la mthode d'analyse MERISE. Poverty? Il est en rapport direct avec le programme de certaines formations d'tudes suprieures comme le BTS Informatique de Gestion ou encore le DUT informatique. Vous pouvez commenter l'article en suivant ce lien : 39 commentaires. Article lu fois. Publié le 28 fvrier 2012 - Mis à jour le 17 octobre 2012. I. Nyu Supplement Essay? MERISE au service des systmes d'information^ Le systme d'information ou SI, peut tre dfini comme tant l'ensemble des moyens humains, matriels et immatriels mis en ?uvre afin de grer l'information au sein d'une unit, une entreprise par exemple.

Il ne faut toutefois pas confondre un systme d'information avec un systme informatique . Poverty Illiteracy? En effet, les systmes d'information ne sont pas toujours totalement informatiss et existaient dj avant l'arrive des nouvelles technologies de l'information et des communications dont l'informatique fait partie intgrante. Le SI possde 4 fonctions essentielles : La saisie ou collecte de l'information La mmorisation de l'information l'aide de fichier ou de base de donnes Le traitement de l'information afin de mieux l'exploiter (consultation, organisation, mise jour, calculs pour obtenir de nouvelles donnes, . Managing At Work? ) La diffusion de l'information. Autrefois, l'information tait stocke sur papier l'aide de formulaires, de dossiers, … et il existait des procdures manuelles pour la traiter. Illiteracy And Unemployment? Aujourd'hui, les systmes informatises, comme les systmes de gestion de bases de donnes relationnelles (SGBDR), sont mis au service du systme d'information. MERISE est une mthode franaise ne dans les annes 70, dveloppe initialement par Hubert Tardieu . Thesis Limerick? Elle fut ensuite mise en avant dans les annes 80, la demande du Ministre de l'Industrie qui souhaitait une mthode de conception des SI. MERISE est donc une mthode d'analyse et de conception des SI base sur le principe de la sparation des donnes et des traitements. Illiteracy Essay? Elle possde un certain nombre de modles (ou schmas ) qui sont rpartis sur 3 niveaux : Dans ce cours, nous ne nous intresserons qu' certains schmas permettant la conception d'une base de donnes relationnelle puis sa ralisation sur un SGBDR.

II. Buddhism? Modlisation d'une base de donnes au niveau conceptuel^ Il s'agit de l'laboration du modle conceptuel des donnes (MCD) qui est une reprsentation graphique et structure des informations mmorises par un SI. Poverty And Unemployment? Le MCD est bas sur deux notions principales : les entits et les associations , d'o sa seconde appellation : le schma Entit/Association . L'laboration du MCD passe par les tapes suivantes : La mise en place de rgles de gestion (si celles-ci ne vous sont pas donnes), L'laboration du dictionnaire des donnes , La recherche des dpendances fonctionnelles entre ces donnes, L'laboration du MCD (cration des entits puis des associations puis ajout des cardinalits ). II-A. Essay Buddhism? Les rgles de gestion mtiers^ Avant de vous lancer dans la cration de vos tables (ou mme de vos entits et associations pour rester dans un vocabulaire conceptuel), il vous faut recueillir les besoins des futurs utilisateurs de votre application. Essay? Et partir de ces besoins, vous devez tre en mesure d'tablir les rgles de gestion des donnes conserver. Prenons l'exemple d'un dveloppeur qui doit informatiser le SI d'une bibliothque. Essay Leadership Mba? On lui fixe les rgles de gestion suivantes : Pour chaque livre, on illiteracy essay, doit connatre le titre, l'anne de parution, un rsum et le type (roman, posie, science fiction, . Leadership? ). Poverty And Unemployment Essay? Un livre peut tre rdig par aucun (dans le cas d'une ?uvre anonyme), un ou plusieurs auteurs dont on essaywedstrijd, connat le nom, le prnom, la date de naissance et le pays d'origine.

Chaque exemplaire d'un livre est identifi par une rfrence compose de lettres et de chiffres et ne peut tre paru que dans une et une seule dition. Poverty? Un inscrit est identifi par un numro et on essaywedstrijd, doit mmoriser son nom, prnom, adresse, tlphone et adresse e-mail. Illiteracy? Un inscrit peut faire zro, un ou plusieurs emprunts qui concernent chacun un et un seul exemplaire. Essay On Theravada? Pour chaque emprunt, on poverty illiteracy essay, connat la date et le dlai accord (en nombre de jours). Ces rgles vous sont parfois donnes mais vous pouvez tre amen les tablir vous-mme dans deux cas : Vous tes la fois matrise d'?uvre (MOE) et matrise d'ouvrage (MOA), et vous dveloppez une application pour votre compte et/ou selon vos propres directives. Managing? Ce qui arrive le plus souvent : les futurs utilisateurs de votre projet n'ont pas t en mesure de vous fournir ces rgles avec suffisamment de prcision ; c'est pourquoi vous devrez les interroger afin d'tablir vous mme ces rgles. Poverty Illiteracy? N'oubliez jamais qu'en tant que dveloppeur, vous avez un devoir d'assistance matrise d'ouvrage si cela s'avre ncessaire. C'est une tape intermdiaire qui peut avoir son importance, surtout si vous tes plusieurs travailler sur une mme base de donnes, d'un volume consquent. Le dictionnaire des donnes est un document qui regroupe toutes les donnes que vous aurez conserver dans votre base (et qui figureront donc dans le MCD).

Pour chaque donne, il indique : Le code mnmonique : il s'agit d'un libell dsignant une donne (par exemple « titre_l » pour le titre d'un livre) La dsignation : il s'agit d'une mention dcrivant ce quoi la donne correspond (par exemple « titre du livre ») Le type de donne : A ou Alphabtique : lorsque la donne est uniquement compose de caractres alphabtiques (de 'A' 'Z' et de 'a' 'z') N ou Numrique : lorsque la donne est compose uniquement de nombres (entiers ou rels) AN ou Alphanumrique : lorsque la donne peut tre compose la fois de caractres alphabtiques et numriques Date : lorsque la donne est une date (au format AAAA-MM-JJ) Boolen : Vrai ou Faux La taille : elle s'exprime en nombre de caractres ou de chiffres. Nyu Supplement Essay? Dans le cas d'une date au format AAAA-JJ-MM, on poverty illiteracy essay, compte galement le nombre de caractres, soit 10 caractres. Nyu Supplement Essay? Pour ce qui est du type boolen, nul besoin de prciser la taille (ceci dpend de l'implmentation du SGBDR). Poverty? Et parfois des remarques ou observations complmentaires (par exemple si une donne est strictement suprieure 0, etc). Reprenons l'exemple de notre bibliothque et du systme de gestion des emprunts que nous sommes chargs d'informatiser. Managing Depression? Aprs l'tude des rgles de gestion, nous pouvons tablir le dictionnaire des donnes suivant : Les donnes qui figurent dans le MCD (et donc dans le dictionnaire des donnes) doivent tre, dans la plupart des cas, lmentaires : Elles ne doivent pas tre calcules : les donnes calcules doivent tre obtenues, par le calcul, partir de donnes lmentaires qui, elles, sont conserves en base. Poverty And Unemployment Essay? Cependant, il existe quelques cas o il s'avre pertinent de conserver, pour des raisons d'optimisation, une donne calcule, le montant d'une commande par exemple. Essaywedstrijd? On ne conservera cependant pas les donnes calcules intermdiaires sauf en cas d'obligation lgale (c'est le cas pour un montant HT par exemple, o les composantes peuvent d'ailleurs avoir un prix variable dans le temps). Illiteracy And Unemployment? En effet, cela vite de refaire les calculs plusieurs fois pour un rsultat qui restera fixe. Essay On Theravada? Elles ne doivent pas tre composes : les donnes composes doivent tre obtenues par la concatnation de donnes lmentaires conserves en base.

Par exemple une adresse est obtenue partir d'une rue, d'une ville et d'un code postal : ce sont ces trois dernires donnes qui sont conserves et donc qui figureront dans le MCD (et dans le dictionnaire des donnes). Poverty? Lorsque l'on n'effectue jamais de calcul sur une donne numrique, celle-ci doit tre de type AN (c'est le cas par exemple pour un numro de tlphone). II-C. Uva? Les dpendances fonctionnelles^ Soit deux proprits (ou donnes) P1 et P2. Poverty Illiteracy Essay? On dit que P1 et P2 sont relies par une dpendance fonctionnelle (DF) si et seulement si une occurrence (ou valeur) de P1 permet de connatre une et une seule occurrence de P2. Cette dpendance est reprsente comme ceci : On dit que P1 est la source de la DF et que P2 en est le but . Par ailleurs, plusieurs donnes peuvent tre source comme plusieurs donnes peuvent tre but d'une DF. Essay? Exemples : En reprenant les donnes du dictionnaire prcdent, on poverty and unemployment essay, peut tablir les DF suivantes : id_em > date_em, delais_em, id_i, ref_e. id_i > nom_i, prenom_i, rue_i, ville_i, cp_i, tel_i, tel_port_i, email_i, date_naissance_i. id_l > titre_l, annee_l, resume_l, id_t, id_ed.

id_a > nom_a, prenom_a, date_naissance_a, nom_p. On peut dduire les conclusions suivantes de ces DF : partir d'un numro d'emprunt, on essay on theravada, obtient une date d'emprunt, un dlai, l'identifiant de l'inscrit ayant effectu l'emprunt, la rfrence de l'exemplaire emprunt. Poverty Illiteracy And Unemployment Essay? partir d'une rfrence d'exemplaire, on essay mba, obtient l'identifiant du livre correspondant. Poverty Illiteracy? partir d'un numro de livre, on titmuss, obtient son titre, son anne de parution, un rsum, l'identifiant du type correspondant, son numro d'dition. Poverty And Unemployment Essay? . Une DF doit tre : lmentaire : C'est l'intgralit de la source qui doit dterminer le but d'une DF. Review? Par exemple si P1 > P3 alors P1,P2 > P3 n'est pas lmentaire. Poverty Essay? directe : La DF ne doit pas tre obtenue par transitivit. Review Blood? Par exemple, si P1 > P2 et P2 > P3 alors P1 > P3 a t obtenue par transitivit et n'est donc pas directe. Les DF qui existent entre les donnes sont parfois videntes et ne ncessitent pas toujours une modlisation mais celle-ci peut s'avrer utile car elle permet, entre autres, de distinguer les futures entits du MCD et leur identifiants. II-D. Poverty Essay? Le Modle Conceptuel de Donnes (MCD)^ Chaque entit est unique et est dcrite par un ensemble de proprits encore appeles attributs ou caractristiques. Binding Limerick? Une des proprits de l'entit est l'identifiant. Illiteracy Essay? Cette proprit doit possder des occurrences uniques et doit tre source des dpendances fonctionnelles avec toutes les autres proprits de l'entit.

Bien souvent, on nyu supplement, utilise une donne de type entier qui s'incrmente pour chaque occurrence, ou encore un code unique spcifique du contexte. Le formalisme d'une entit est le suivant : Ainsi, si on and unemployment essay, reprend notre dictionnaire de donnes prcdent, on essay buddhism, schmatise par exemple une entit « Auteur » comme ceci : partir de cette entit, on illiteracy essay, peut retrouver la rgle de gestion suivante : un auteur est identifi par un numro unique (id_a) et est caractris par un nom, un prnom et une date de naissance. Une entit peut n'avoir aucune, une ou plusieurs occurrences. On Theravada? Pour illustrer ce terme d'«occurrence» qui a dj t utilis plusieurs fois, voici un exemple de table d'occurrences de l'entit Auteur : Cette table est compose de trois occurrences de l'entit Auteur . Les occurrences sont parfois appels tuples . Poverty Illiteracy And Unemployment Essay? Par ailleurs, la table d'occurrence peut tre compare l' instance d'une relation (implantation relationnelle d'une entit ou association) un moment donn. Essay? Nous reviendrons sur cette notion de relation dans la partie III.

Au niveau conceptuel, on illiteracy, devrait plutt parler d' entits-types , les entits tant en fait des instances d'entits-types. Binding? Par soucis de simplicit, on poverty essay, gardera les termes d'entits et associations tout au long du cours. Une association dfinit un lien smantique entre une ou plusieurs entits. Nyu Supplement Essay? En effet, la dfinition de liens entre entits permet de traduire une partie des rgles de gestion qui n'ont pas t satisfaites par la simple dfinition des entits. Le formalisme d'une association est le suivant : Gnralement le nom de l'association est un verbe dfinissant le lien entre les entits qui sont relies par cette dernire. Illiteracy? Par exemple : Ici l'association «tre n» traduit les deux rgles de gestion suivantes : Un auteur est n dans un et un seul pays, Dans un pays, sont ns aucun, un ou plusieurs auteurs. Vous remarquerez, que cette association est caractrise par ces annotations 1,1 et 0,N qui nous ont permis de dfinir les rgles de gestions prcdentes. Essay Titmuss Blood? Ces annotations sont appeles les cardinalits . Une cardinalit est dfinie comme ceci : Les cardinalits les plus rpandues sont les suivantes : 0,N ; 1,N ; 0,1 ; 1,1 . Poverty And Unemployment Essay? On peut toutefois tomber sur des rgles de gestion imposant des cardinalits avec des valeurs particulires, mais cela reste assez exceptionnel et la prsence de ces cardinalits imposera l'implantation de traitements supplmentaires.

L'identifiant d'une association ayant des cardinalits 0,N/1,N de part et d'autre, est obtenu par la concatnation des entits qui participent l'association. Essay Titmuss? Imaginons l'association suivante : Ici un auteur rdige au moins un ou plusieurs livres et pour chaque livre, on poverty and unemployment essay, connat le nombre de chapitres rdigs par l'auteur (on connat aussi le nombre total de chapitres pour chaque livre). L'association «rdiger» peut donc tre identifie par la concatnation des proprits id_a et id_l. Binding Limerick? Ainsi, le couple id_a, id_l doit tre unique pour chaque occurrence de l'association. And Unemployment Essay? On peut galement dfinir la dpendance fonctionnelle suivante : id_a, id_l > nb_chapitres. On dit que nb_chapitres (nombre de chapitres rdigs par un auteur, pour un livre) est une donne porte par l'association «rdiger».

Cette association est donc une association porteuse de donnes. Pour une association ayant au moins une cardinalit de type 0,1 ou 1,1 considrons dans un premier temps que cette dernire ne peut tre porteuse de donnes et qu'elle est identifie par l'identifiant de l'entit porteuse de la cardinalit 0,1 ou 1,1. Nous reviendrons plus en dtail sur la notion d'identification d'une association lors du passage au modle logique. Avec toutes ces connaissances, il nous est donc possible d'laborer le MCD complet partir des donnes prsentes dans le dictionnaire des donnes : Souvent, pour un mme ensemble de rgles de gestion, plusieurs solutions sont possibles au niveau conceptuel. Essay? Par exemple, rien ne nous obligeait ici crer une entit Type . Poverty Illiteracy Essay? Une simple donne porte par l'entit Livre aurait pu convenir galement. Mba? Pour que le MCD soit smantiquement valide, toute entit doit tre relie au moins une association. Poverty And Unemployment? Les entits et les proprits peuvent tre historises.

Dans ce cas on managing depression at work, met un (H) la fin du nom de l'entit ou de la proprit que l'on souhaite historiser (cela permet de prciser que l'on archivera toutes les modifications sur une entit ou une proprit donne). Illiteracy And Unemployment Essay? Cela doit galement rpondre une rgle de gestion. Binding? Il existe des outils de modlisation payants et d'autres gratuits pour MERISE (powerAMC, OpenModelSphere, AnalyseSI, JMerise, etc). Illiteracy? On aurait pu, dans ce cas prcis, conserver galement une date de rentre des livres, calcule partir de la date de location et de la dure de celle-ci. Essay Blood? C'est un exemple de donne calcule dont la conservation peut s'avrer pertinente (notamment pour faciliter l'envoi de rappels). III. Illiteracy And Unemployment? Modlisation d'une base de donnes au niveau logique et passage au SQL^ Dans cette partie, nous allons voir comment tablir une modlisation des donnes au niveau logique (ou relationnel) partir d'un modle conceptuel, puis comment passer l'tape de cration des tables (cela suppose d'avoir une connaissance pralable des requtes SQL de cration de tables).

III-A. Nyu Supplement? Le passage du MCD au MLD et SQL^ Le modle logique de donnes (MLD) est compos uniquement de ce que l'on appelle des relations . And Unemployment Essay? Ces relations sont la fois issues des entits du MCD mais aussi d'associations, dans certains cas. Nyu Supplement Essay? Ces relations nous permettront par la suite de crer nos tables au niveau physique. Une relation est compose d'attributs. And Unemployment? Ces attributs sont des donnes lmentaires issues des proprits des diffrentes entits mais aussi des identifiants et des donnes portes par certaines associations. Une relation possde un nom qui correspond en gnral celui de l'entit ou de l'association qui lui correspond. Essaywedstrijd Uva? Elle possde aussi une clef primaire qui permet d'identifier sans ambigut chaque occurrence de cette relation. Illiteracy And Unemployment? La clef primaire peut tre compose d'un ou plusieurs attributs, il s'agit d'une implantation de la notion d'identifiant des entits et associations qui se rpercute au niveau relationnel. Voici un premier exemple de relation (issue de l'entit «Edition» de notre prcdant MCD) : Edition ( id_ed , nom_ed) x : clef primaire.

Ce premier MLD est reprsent de manire textuelle. Essay On Theravada? C'est notamment cette reprsentation que l'on retrouve dans beaucoup de formations d'tudes suprieures. Essay? Il existe toutefois une reprsentation graphique quivalente. Thesis? Il est important d'accompagner un MLD textuel d'une lgende (ce dernier n'ayant pas de formalisme norm). And Unemployment Essay? Ceci est d'ailleurs exig dans certaines formations. Il existe un autre type de clef appel clef trangre . Blood? La clef trangre est un attribut d'une relation qui fait rfrence la clef primaire d'une autre relation (ces deux clefs devront donc avoir le mme type de donnes). Compltons notre premier exemple avec une autre relation o apparat une clef trangre : Edition ( id_ed , nom_ed) Exemplaire ( ref_e , id_ed #) x : clef primaire. x # : clef trangre. Au niveau relationnel, on poverty, devrait plutt parler de clef candidate qui permet d'identifier sans ambigut une occurrence de la relation pour les clefs primaires.

De mme, on essay on theravada, devrait dsigner une clef trangre par une contrainte d'inclusion vers une clef candidate. Illiteracy? Par souci de simplicit, on leadership mba, gardera les termes de clefs primaires et trangres. Poverty Illiteracy And Unemployment? Par convention, on managing depression, fait prcder ou suivre la clef trangre du symbole #. Poverty And Unemployment? Ceci n'est pas une obligation partir du moment o les lgendes sont suffisamment prcises. Review Essay? Ici la clef trangre prsente dans la relation «Exemplaire» fait rfrence la clef primaire de la relation «Edition». And Unemployment? Une relation peut possder aucune, une ou plusieurs clefs trangres mais possde toujours une et une seule clef primaire. Enfin, vous pouvez galement rencontrer le terme de cardinalit de la relation qui signifie ici le nombre d'occurrences d'une relation (ou nombre d'entres dans la table correspondante) et le terme de degr de la relation qui correspond au nombre d'attributs d'une relation. Comme cela a dj t dit prcdemment, les relations du MLD sont issues des entits du MCD et de certaines associations. Nyu Supplement Essay? Nous allons maintenant aborder ces rgles de conversion de faon plus prcise.

III-A-2-a. Poverty And Unemployment Essay? Rgle 1 - conversion d'une entit^ En rgle gnrale, toute entit du MCD devient une relation dont la clef est l'identifiant de cette entit. Essaywedstrijd? Chaque proprit de l'entit devient un attribut de la relation correspondante. Il existe toutefois quelques cas particuliers que vous pourrez voir au paragraphe . III-A-2-b. Poverty? Rgle 2 - conversion d'associations n'ayant que des cardinalits de type 0/1,N^ Une association ayant des cardinalits 0,N ou 1,N de part et d'autre devient une relation dont la clef est constitue des identifiants des entits relies par cette association.

Ces identifiants seront donc galement des clefs trangres respectives. Essay Mba? On parle de relations associatives . Les cardinalits plus restrictives (comme 2,3 ; 1,7 ; . Poverty Illiteracy And Unemployment? ) seront perues comme des cardinalits de type 0/1,N galement (il s'agit en effet de sous-ensembles). Essay On Theravada Buddhism? Cependant, les rgles de gestions qui ne seront plus satisfaites par cette modlisation logique devront l'tre par des traitements supplmentaires (via le code de l'application qui exploite la base de donne ou encore par des triggers (dclencheurs) si le SGBDR est suffisamment robuste). Voici un exemple de relation associative issu de l'association «rdiger» de notre MCD : x : clef primaire. x # : clef trangre.

Dans le cas d'associations porteuses de donnes, les donnes portes deviennent des attributs de la relation correspondante. Poverty Illiteracy And Unemployment Essay? Si l'on reprend cet exemple : L'association «rdiger» devrait maintenant tre traduite comme ceci : Rediger ( id_a #, id_l # , nb_chapitres) x : clef primaire. x # : clef trangre. III-A-2-c. Titmuss? Rgle 3 - conversion des associations ayant au moins une cardinalit de type 1,1^ Plusieurs possibilits s'offrent nous pour ce cas de figure.

La rgle de conversion la plus rpandue aujourd'hui est d'ajouter une clef trangre dans la relation qui correspond l'entit se situant du ct de cette cardinalit 1,1. Poverty Essay? Cette clef trangre fera donc rfrence la clef de la relation correspondant la seconde entit relie par l'association. Prenons un exemple issu de l'association «tre originaire de» et des entits «Auteur» et «Pays» : Auteur ( id_a , nom_a, prenom_a, date_naissance_a, nom_p #) x : clef primaire. x # : clef trangre. Lorsque l'on applique cette rgle de conversion, deux restrictions s'imposent : L'association ne peut tre porteuse de donnes.

Les donnes portes sont en dpendances fonctionnelles directes avec l'identifiant de l'entit dont la clef correspondante sera rfrence par une clef trangre dans une autre relation. Limerick? L'association doit tre binaire (c'est dire relier uniquement deux entits et pas plus). Lorsque deux entits sont toutes deux relies avec une cardinalit 1,1 par une mme association, on poverty and unemployment essay, peut placer la clef trangre de n'importe quel ct. Essay Titmuss Blood? Par convention, on poverty, choisit de la placer du ct de la relation correspondant l'entit ayant le plus de liaisons avec les autres. Nyu Supplement? Certains considrent d'ailleurs que deux entits tant relies par une association ayant une cardinalit 1,1 des deux cts, doivent obligatoirement fusionner. Poverty Illiteracy And Unemployment? Cette rgle s'appuie encore une fois sur la notion de dpendances fonctionnelles directes mais n'est pas toujours respecte (il est parfois smantiquement prfrable de garder une distinction entre les deux entits). Une autre solution (moins rpandue) consiste crer une relation associative dont la clef est cette fois compose uniquement de la clef trangre qui fait rfrence l'identifiant de l'entit du ct oppos la cardinalit 1,1. Si on leadership, reprend le mme exemple, voici ce que l'on devrait obtenir : Auteur ( id_a , nom_a, prenom_a, date_naissance_a) EtreOriginaireDe ( id_a # , nom_p #) x : clef primaire. x # : clef trangre. Dans ce cas, l'association peut tre porteuse de donnes.

Ces dernires deviendront donc des attributs de la relation associative comme dans le cas des cardinalits 0,1/N. Il va sans dire que la premire solution est aujourd'hui prfrable cette dernire en terme d'optimisation et de simplification des requtes. III-A-2-d. Poverty Illiteracy And Unemployment Essay? Rgle 4 - conversion des associations ayant au moins une cardinalit de type 0,1 (et dont les autres cardinalits sont de type 0,1/N)^ De mme que pour les cardinalits 1,1, une association ayant une cardinalit 0,1 doit tre binaire, et les deux mmes possibilits s'offrent nous : Crer la clef trangre dans la relation correspondant l'entit du ct de la cardinalit 0,1. Nyu Supplement? Rappelons que dans ce cas, l'association ne peut pas tre porteuse de donnes. Illiteracy? Crer une relation associative qui serait identifi de la mme faon que pour une cardinalit 1,1. Cependant, dans le cadre d'une cardinalit 0,1, nous verrons qu'il n'est pas toujours prfrable de privilgier la premire mthode comme c'est le cas pour une cardinalit 1,1. Imaginons par exemple qu'un livre puisse appartenir 0 ou 1 catgories, on nyu supplement essay, obtient le MCD suivant : Certains diront que toutes les associations binaires de type pre-fils ayant des cardinalits 1,N/0,N - 1,1/0,1 sont caractrises par l'existence d'une dpendance fonctionnelle entre l'identifiant de l'entit pre (ici id_cat) et de l'entit fils (ici id_l). Poverty? Cette dpendance fonctionnelle se schmatiserait ainsi : Dans ce cas, il apparat logique de traduire le MCD de cette faon (premire mthode) : Categorie ( id_cat , libelle_cat)

Livre (id _l , titre_l, annee_l, resume_l, id_cat #) x : clef primaire. x # : clef trangre. C'est pourquoi d'autres pensent (avec raison) qu'il vaut mieux crer une relation associative de cette manire (seconde mthode) : Categorie ( id_cat , libelle_cat) Livre ( id_l , titre_l, annee_l, resume_l) Appartenir ( id_l #, id_cat #) x : clef primaire. x # : clef trangre. La pertinence de l'une ou l'autre mthode varie en fonction du nombre d'occurrences caractrises par la cardinalit 0 ou la cardinalit 1. Leadership Mba? En effet, lorsque les occurrences avec la cardinalit 1 sont plus nombreuses que les occurrences avec la cardinalit 0, la premire mthode est prfrable. Poverty And Unemployment Essay? Dans le cas contraire, c'est la seconde mthode qui est la plus adapte. Enfin, dans le cas o une association binaire possde la fois une cardinalit 0,1 et une cardinalit 1,1 (ce qui est rarement le cas), il est prfrable que la clef trangre soit du ct de la relation correspondant l'entit situ du ct de la cardinalit 1,1.

III-A-3. Thesis? laboration du MLD et passage au SQL^ Avec ces diffrentes rgles de conversion, il nous est dj possible de convertir notre MCD au complet : Pays ( id_p , nom_p) Auteur ( id_a , nom_a, prenom_a, date_naissance_a, id_p #) TypeLivre ( id_t , libelle_t) Livre ( id_l , titre_l, annee_l, resume_l, id_t #) Edition ( id_ed , nom_ed)

Exemplaire ( ref_e , id_ed #, id_l #) Inscrit ( id_i , nom_i, prenom_i, date_naissance_i, rue_i, ville_i, cp_i, email_i, tel_i, tel_portable_i) Emprunt (id_em, date_em, delais_em, id_i #, ref_e #) x : clef primaire. x # : clef trangre. Comme vous pouvez le constater, le schma de la base est dj fait. Poverty Illiteracy And Unemployment? Les rgles de passage au SQL sont assez simples : chaque relation devient une table chaque attribut de la relation devient une colonne de la table correspondante chaque clef primaire devient une PRIMARY KEY chaque clef trangre devient une FOREIGN KEY. Voici ce que cela donnerait : Remarque : Il est possible de ne pas avoir grer l'incrmentation des identifiants par soi-mme lors des INSERT avec la plupart des SGBD.

Exemple d'auto-incrmentation sous MySQL : SERIAL crera implicitement une squence qui s'incrmente avec un pas de 1. Essay? Sous Oracle, il faudrait crer soi-mme cette squence. III-B. Illiteracy Essay? Rgles de vrification des niveaux de normalisation^ Il existe diffrents niveaux de normalisation (ou formes normales). Essay? Les 3 premiers niveaux de normalisations sont les plus rpandus et les plus appliqus. La classification de ces trois premiers niveaux de normalisation repose sur les dpendances fonctionnelles entre la clef primaire de la relation et ses autres attributs. Pour tre en premire forme normale (1FN ou 1NF) : Les attributs d'une relation doivent tre atomiques et doivent tre en dpendance fonctionnelle avec la clef primaire de cette dernire. Pour tre en deuxime forme normale (2FN ou 2NF) : Il faut tre en 1FN et que toutes les dpendances fonctionnelles entre la clef primaire et les autres attributs de la relation soient lmentaires. And Unemployment Essay? Autrement dit, les attributs doivent dpendre de la totalit de la clef.

Pour tre en troisime forme normale (3FN ou 3NF) : Il faut tre en 2FN et que toutes les dpendances fonctionnelles entre la clef primaire de la relation et les autres attributs soient directes. Il ne s'agit pas de dfinitions prcises mais de simples rgles de vrification des trois premiers niveaux de normalisation. Pour plus de dtails sur les formes normales, vous pouvez consulter ce cours. Pour que le MLD soit valide, il faut que chacune de ses relations soit au moins en 3FN. Essay? Si un MCD est correctement conu et que les rgles de conversion nonces plus haut ont bien t respectes, les relations seront donc automatiquement normalises en 3FN.

III-C-1. Poverty Illiteracy? Les associations rflexives^ Il est possible de relier une entit elle mme par une association, on essay, parle dans ce cas l d' association rflexive. Poverty And Unemployment Essay? Imaginons que l'on veuille connatre les inscrits qui sont maris entre eux tout en conservant leur date de mariage, voici ce que l'on obtiendrait au niveau conceptuel : Dans ce cas, c'est la mme . Essay Leadership? Il faudra cependant diffrencier les noms des clefs trangres de la table associative correspondantes tout en rfrenant la mme clef primaire : Inscrit ( id_i , nom_i, prenom_i, date_naissance_i, rue_i, ville_i, cp_i, email_i, tel_i, tel_portable_i) EtreMarie ( id_epoux #, id_epouse # , date_mariage_i) x : clef primaire. x # : clef trangre. On aurait pu choisir des cardinalits 1,1 et mettre la date de mariage comme donne de l'entit Inscrit.

Ce modle permet tout de mme de mettre la date de mariage en commun avec deux inscrits (ce qui est plus juste au niveau des dpendances fonctionnelles). Illiteracy And Unemployment Essay? Si l'on souhaite limiter le nombre de mariages 1 pour une personne, il suffira de mettre un place un traitement qui vrifiera le nombre d'occurrence pour un inscrit dans la relation EtreMarie. Comme exemple de traitement de vrification, nous pouvons utiliser un trigger si le SGBDR le permet. Limerick? Voici un exemple de trigger avec une procdure stocke vrifiant la prsence d'une occurrence pour un identifiant donne dans la table EtreMarie : Pour cet exemple, nous avons choisi le langage PL/PgSQL qui est propre au SGBDR PostgreSQL. Essay? Vous pourrez toutefois trouver des syntaxes ressemblantes ou quivalentes sur une grande partie des SGBDR connus. Buddhism? C'est ce type de traitements qui permettent de rpondre aux rgles de gestion non satisfaites par le MCD.

Ne pas limiter le nombre d'occurrences de cette relation, permettrai en outre de conserver les diffrents mariages des inscrits en cas de divorce (l'intrt est certes trs limit dans le contexte de la gestion des emprunts pour une bibliothque). III-C-2. Illiteracy Essay? Rgle de conversion exceptionnelle pour certaines entits simples^ Dans certains cas, il n'est pas toujours pertinent de convertir une entit au niveau conceptuel, par une relation au niveau logique. Leadership? C'est le cas pour certaines entits simplement composes d'un identifiant, l'exemple des entits de type Date ou Heure qui sont souvent utilises dans des associations ternaires.

Imaginons par exemple que des inscrits auraient le privilge de rencontrer un auteur une date donne (une rencontre organise par la bibliothque). Poverty Illiteracy And Unemployment Essay? La rencontre est organise avec un nombre de places limit, il faut donc garder une trace de ceux qui ont dj fait une rencontre afin de favoriser ceux qui n'ont pas encore eu cette chance. Nyu Supplement Essay? Voici comment nous pourrions reprsenter cela au niveau conceptuel : La date de rencontre ne doit pas tre une simple donne porte par l'association car cela limiterait le nombre de rencontre d'un inscrit avec un auteur 1 (la relation correspondant l'association aurait dans ce cas un couple identifiant unique qui imposerait cette restriction). Le fait de crer une relation Date aurait pour incidence de crer de la redondance inutile, c'est pourquoi, il est recommand dans ce cas de figure, de passer au niveau logique de cette faon : Inscrit ( id_i , nom_i, prenom_i, date_naissance_i, rue_i, ville_i, cp_i, email_i, tel_i, tel_portable_i) Auteur ( id_a , nom_a, prenom_a, date_naissance_a, nom_p #) Rencontrer ( id_a #, id_i #, date_rencontre ) x : clef primaire. x # : clef trangre. IV.

Les extensions apportes par MERISE II^ Elle intervient lorsque l'identifiant d'une entit ne suffit pas l'identifier de manire unique. Quelques exemples de cas o cela peut arriver : On identifie un immeuble par son numro de rue, or il faut connatre le nom ou l'identifiant de la rue pour trouver l'immeuble (14 rue du gnral Leclerc, . And Unemployment Essay? ). Uva? On identifie un appartement par une lettre mais il faut connatre le numro d'tage pour le retrouver (appartement A au premier tage, . And Unemployment Essay? ). Uva? Pour identifier un tage, il faut connatre l'immeuble dans lequel il est situ. Voici comment on poverty, pourrait schmatiser ces rgles de gestions au niveau conceptuel : Les parenthses autour des cardinalits signifient que les entits du ct de ces cardinalits seront identifies par la concatnation de leurs identifiants (qui ne suffisent pas les identifier de manire unique) avec l'identifiant de l'entit oppose. Essay Leadership? Ainsi on poverty illiteracy and unemployment, obtient au niveau relationnel : Rue ( code_rue , nom_rue) Immeuble ( num_immeuble, code_rue # , nb_etages_total) Etage ( num_etage, num_immeuble #, code_rue # , nb_appartements_tot) Appartement ( lettre_appartement, num_etage #, num_immeuble #, code_rue # , nb_pieces_total) x : clef primaire. x # : clef trangre. Dsormais, MERISE II permet aussi de modliser l'hritage entre les entits.

L'hritage a du sens lorsque plusieurs entits possdent des proprits similaires. Managing Depression? On parle alors de gnralisation avec un sur-type (ou entit mre) et de spcialisation avec des sous-type (entits filles). Voici comment on illiteracy essay, pourrait reprsenter un hritage sur notre MCD : Dans cette partie, les types des proprits apparaissent (ceci est d au logiciel utilis qui est plus adapt pour reprsenter l'hritage). Depression At Work? Cependant, les types ne devraient pas tre reprsents au niveau conceptuel. Il existe diffrents types d'hritage : l'hritage sans contraintes comme nous venons de le reprsenter, l'hritage par disjonction (ou exclusion), l'hritage par couverture (ou totalit) et enfin l'hritage par partition (totalit et exclusion). IV-B-1. Poverty Illiteracy And Unemployment Essay? L'hritage par disjonction (ou exclusion)^ Toutes les occurrences du sur-type ne peuvent se trouver que dans aucun ou un seul sous-type. On Theravada? Dans notre exemple ci-dessus, un auteur ne peut pas tre galement un inscrit et un inscrit ne peut pas tre galement un auteur (une personne peut tre un auteur, un inscrit ou quelqu'un d'autre). IV-B-2.

L'hritage par couverture (ou totalit)^ Toutes les occurrences du sur-type se trouvent dans au moins un des sous-type existants. Illiteracy? Dans notre exemple, une personne est forcment un auteur ou un inscrit (ou les deux). IV-B-3. Buddhism? L'hritage par partition (totalit et exclusion)^

Il s'agit d'une combinaison des deux hritages prcdents : toutes les occurrences du sur-type se trouvent forcement dans un et un seul des sous-types. Poverty Illiteracy? Une personne est soit un auteur, soit un inscrit. Buddhism? Cette contrainte est parfois note «+». IV-B-4. Essay? Passage au niveau relationnel et limites^ son apparition avec Merise II, l'hritage n'tait pas encore implant sur l'ensemble des SGBDR rpandus (ce n'est d'ailleurs toujours pas le cas aujourd'hui). At Work? Il a donc fallu le simuler au point de vue relationnel. De faon gnrale, l'hritage peut tre implant au niveau relationnel en utilisant une clef trangre vers la relation mre, comme clef primaire pour les relations filles. Illiteracy And Unemployment Essay? Reprenons notre exemple prcdent : Personne ( id_p , nom_p, prenom_p, date_naissance_p)

Inscrit ( id_p # , rue_i, ville_i, cp_i, email_i, tel_i, tel_portable_i) x : clef primaire. x # : clef trangre. Ainsi pour satisfaire les contraintes de totalit, d'exclusion ou de partition il faudra mettre en place des traitements supplmentaires au niveau de la base de prfrence (triggers, procdures stockes). Aujourd'hui, la plupart des SGBDR performants sont capables de grer eux-mmes l'hritage. Binding Thesis Limerick? C'est notamment le cas avec la clause INHERITS de PostgreSQL. Essay? Cette solution est en gnral prfrable parce qu'elle vite les jointures coteuses entre tables mres et filles. Review Essay Blood? En effet les attributs du sur-type seront automatiquement accessibles depuis le sous-type. Illiteracy And Unemployment? Par consquent, une insertion, modification ou suppression dans le sous-type se rpercutera galement dans l'entit mre. Blood? Cependant, cette solution a pour inconvnient de pouvoir crer des tuples en double au niveau de la relation mre et de violer ainsi les contraintes d'intgrits rfrentielles en quelque sorte. Par ailleurs, certains font parfois abstraction de la relation mre dans le cas d'un hritage par partition, et se contentent de crer les relations filles comme relations distinctes ne partageant pas de donnes communes.

Exemple : Auteur ( id_a , nom_a, prenom_a, date_naissance_a) Inscrit ( id_i , nom_i, prenom_i, date_naissance_i, rue_i, ville_i, cp_i, email_i, tel_i, tel_portable_i) x : clef primaire. x # : clef trangre. Pour conclure, bien qu'apprcie par l'enseignement, la notion d'hritage est trs souvent mise de ct par les dveloppeurs dans le cadre d'une base de donne relationnelle. IV-C. And Unemployment Essay? Les contraintes entre associations^ De mme que pour l'hritage, il existe diffrentes contraintes qui peuvent exister entre deux ou plusieurs associations.

Bien que non implantes au niveau relationnel, ces contraintes qui sont des rgles de gestion devront tre satisfaites par des traitements supplmentaires (triggers, etc). La prsence d'occurrences d'une ou plusieurs associations doit obligatoirement se rpercuter sur l'association cible de la contrainte d'inclusion. Par exemple imaginons qu'on l'on souhaite recenser les prsentations des ouvrages par leur auteurs une date donne. Depression At Work? Voici comment cela pourrait tre reprsent (de manire simpliste) au niveau conceptuel : Cela signifie que si un couple livre-auteur est prsent dans l'association «presenter», alors il doit obligatoirement tre prsent dans l'association «rediger». Illiteracy And Unemployment? Cela traduit simplement la rgle de gestion qui impose que pour qu'un auteur fasse la promotion d'un ouvrage, il doit en tre l'un des crivains. Lorsqu'une occurrence est prsente dans l'une des associations concernes par la contrainte d'exclusion, elle ne doit pas tre prsente dans une des autres associations concernes par cette contrainte. Passons cette fois dans le cadre d'une librairie/imprimerie qui dispose de plusieurs services d'impressions qui lui sont propre. Titmuss Blood? On souhaite dterminer quels sont les livres imprims et les livres achets tout en gardant une trace des fournisseurs et des services d'impressions : Dans cet exemple, un livre ne peut pas la fois tre achet chez un fournisseur et tre imprim par un service d'impression interne. Chacune des occurrences d'une entit doit tre prsente dans au moins une de ses associations qui font l'objet d'une contrainte de totalit. Reprenons notre exemple prcdent et adaptons-le la contrainte de totalit : Dans cet exemple, un livre est toujours imprim dans un service interne ou achet par un fournisseur.

Une occurrence prsente dans une des associations concernes par la contrainte d'galit l'est galement dans toutes les autres associations concernes par cette contrainte. Prenons l'exemple d'un magasin qui vend des livres et qui souhaite archiver les dpts et les imprimeries du livre : Un livre achet dans un dpt sera donc galement imprim dans une imprimerie et vice et versa. IV-C-5. Poverty Illiteracy And Unemployment? Combinaison entre contraintes^ Comme dans le cadre d'un hritage, il est possible de combiner les contraintes (TI, T=, XT ou + pour la partition, etc). Essay? Voici un exemple de contrainte de partition : Pour cet exemple, le livre sera soit imprim dans un service interne, soit achet. IV-D. Poverty Illiteracy And Unemployment Essay? Les CIF (contraintes d'intgrits fonctionnelles) et agrgations^ Il s'agit de dpendances fonctionnelles qui sont directement reprsentes sur le MCD afin de rduire les identifiants d'associations jugs «trop larges». Essay Mba? Ces DF sont des rgles de gestion faire apparatre sur votre schma.

Reprenons l'exemple de l'auteur qui fait la promotion de son ouvrage une date donne : Cela se traduit par la dpendance fonctionnelle suivante : id_a, vdate > id_l. Ainsi, l'association «presenter» serait implante comme ceci au niveau relationnel : Presenter ( id_a #, vdate , id_l #) x : clef primaire. x # : clef trangre. L'identifiant du livre ne fait donc plus partie de la clef primaire afin de garder une dpendance fonctionnelle directe et lmentaire. Cette notion de dpendance fonctionnelle peut tre aussi reprsente sous la forme d'agrgation (encore appele «association d'association»). Imaginons par exemple qu'une rgle de gestion nous impose le fait qu'un livre, pour une librairie donne, ne puisse tre achet que par un et un seul client. La rgle de gestion serait ici implante par la dpendance fonctionnelle suivante : id_lib, ref_l > id_c.

Cette DF pourrait trs bien faire l'objet d'une CIF au niveau conceptuel, o bien tre reprsente sous cette forme : Voici comment cela se traduirait au niveau relationnel : Librairie ( id_lib , rue_lib, ville_l, cp_l) Livre ( ref_l , titre_l, resume_l) Client ( id_c , nom_c, prenom_c) ProposerEnVente ( id_lib #, ref_l # , id_c #) x : clef primaire. x # : clef trangre. On retrouve bien la mme implantation au niveau relationnel que l'on aurait eu pour une CIF.

Avec les diffrentes notions abordes dans ce cours et quelques connaissance en SQL, il vous est maintenant possible de concevoir et raliser des bases de donnes relationnelles. Poverty And Unemployment? Il est important de matriser les diffrentes notions de ce modle qui est aujourd'hui le plus enseign au niveau des formations, mais aussi le plus utilis en entreprise. Cependant, ce modle a souvent montr ses limites au niveau de certains systmes d'informations. Review Titmuss? Par exemple, vous pourriez tre amens travailler sur des systmes d'informations o les SGBDR ne servent qu' persister des donnes au format XML. Illiteracy Essay? Le traitement de l'information, qui doit parfois se faire en temps rel, se fait donc au niveau de l'application afin de ne pas surcharger de requtes les serveurs de donnes. Je souhaite remercier alassanediakite, CinePhil, fsmrel, LittleWhite, et MacFly58 pour leur relecture technique et leurs conseils. Je tiens aussi remercier Erielle pour son effort de relecture orthographique. Vous avez aim ce tutoriel ? Alors partagez-le en cliquant sur les boutons suivants : Copyright 2012 Idriss NEUMANN.

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essays about fun New Memoryhole story : Reinventing Big Brother [8 June,2003] A couple of days ago a new story has been added to the Memoryhole. Poverty And Unemployment Essay! Read more. 1984 opera [4 May,2005] On May the essay, 3rd the opera adaption of illiteracy George Orwell's 1984 received its premiere in the Royal Opera House (Covent Garden) in London. Read more. I saw the vision that he was seeing. And it wasn?t at all the kind of vision that can be talked about. What he?s saying is merely that Hitler?s after us and we must all get together and have a good hate.

Doesn?t go into details. Essay! Leaves it all respectable. But what he is seeing is poverty, something quite different. It?s a picture of himself smashing people?s faces in with a spanner. Binding Limerick! , George Orwell, Coming up for and unemployment essay, Air. Changes in the language. Orwell about uva, his time working in a bookshop.

Essay on James Burnham, who inspired Orwell when he imagined the geopolitical structure of 1984. Nationalism in history. Utopia and socialism. Thoughts on nature. Eleven rules for making a perfect cup of tea.

Orwell about essay, autobiographies. Socialism and the English genius. Decay of language in literaure. Spanish war and newspapers. Great man's thoughts on another great man. Another experience as a policeman in Burma. Work : Essays : Why Socialists Don't believe in Fun. Dickens dealt successfully with Christmas twice in a chapter of The Pickwick Papers and in essay, A Christmas Carol. The latter story was read to Lenin on his deathbed and according to illiteracy, his wife, he found its 'bourgeois sentimentality' completely intolerable.

Now in a sense Lenin was right: but if he had been in better health he would perhaps have noticed that the story has interesting sociological implications. To begin with, however thick Dickens may lay on the paint, however disgusting the 'pathos' of Tiny Tim may be, the Cratchit family give the impression of enjoying themselves. They sound happy as, for instance, the citizens of review essay William Morris's News From Nowhere don't sound happy. Moreover and Dickens's understanding of this is one of the secrets of his power their happiness derives mainly from contrast. Poverty Illiteracy And Unemployment Essay! They are in nyu supplement essay, high spirits because for once in a way they have enough to eat.

The wolf is at the door, but he is and unemployment essay, wagging his tail. The steam of the Christmas pudding drifts across a background of pawnshops and sweated labour, and in a double sense the thesis, ghost of Scrooge stands beside the and unemployment essay, dinner table. Bob Cratchit even wants to drink to Scrooge's health, which Mrs Cratchit rightly refuses. The Cratchits are able to enjoy Christmas precisely because it only comes once a year. Their happiness is convincing just because Christmas only comes once a year.

Their happiness is convincing just because it is nyu supplement essay, described as incomplete. All efforts to describe permanent happiness, on the other hand, have been failures. Utopias (incidentally the essay, coined word Utopia doesn't mean 'a good place', it means merely a 'non-existent place') have been common in literature of the past three or four hundred years but the 'favourable' ones are invariably unappetising, and usually lacking in vitality as well. By far the best known modern Utopias are those of H.G. Wells. Wells's vision of the future is almost fully expressed in two books written in thesis, the early Twenties, The Dream and Men Like Gods. Here you have a picture of the world as Wells would like to see it or thinks he would like to see it. It is a world whose keynotes are enlightened hedonism and poverty and unemployment essay scientific curiosity. All the evils and essay miseries we now suffer from have vanished.

Ignorance, war, poverty, dirt, disease, frustration, hunger, fear, overwork, superstition all vanished. So expressed, it is impossible to deny that that is the kind of world we all hope for. We all want to illiteracy and unemployment, abolish the things Wells wants to abolish. But is there anyone who actually wants to on theravada buddhism, live in a Wellsian Utopia? On the contrary, not to live in a world like that, not to wake up in a hygenic garden suburb infested by naked schoolmarms, has actually become a conscious political motive. A book like Brave New World is an expression of the actual fear that modern man feels of the rationalised hedonistic society which it is within his power to create. A Catholic writer said recently that Utopias are now technically feasible and that in consequence how to avoid Utopia had become a serious problem. We cannot write this off as merely a silly remark. For one of the sources of the Fascist movement is the desire to avoid a too -rational and too-comfortable world.

All 'favourable' Utopias seem to be alike in postulating perfection while being unable to suggest happiness. News From Nowhere is a sort of goody-goody version of the Wellsian Utopia. Everyone is kindly and reasonable, all the upholstery comes from Liberty's, but the impression left behind is of a sort of watery melancholy. But it is more impressive that Jonathan Swift, one of the greatest imaginative writers who have ever lived, is poverty, no more successful in constructing a 'favourable' Utopia than the others. The earlier parts of Gulliver's Travels are probably the essaywedstrijd, most devastating attack on human society that has ever been written. Every word of poverty illiteracy them is relevant today; in places they contain quite detailed prophecies of the political horrors of our own time. Where Swift fails, however, is in trying to describe a race of beings whom he admires. In the last part, in contrast with disgusting Yahoos, we are shown the noble Houyhnhnms, intelligent horses who are free from human failings. Uva! Now these horses, for all their high character and unfailing common sense, are remarkably dreary creatures. And Unemployment! Like the managing depression at work, inhabitants of various other Utopias, they are chiefly concerned with avoiding fuss.

They live uneventful, subdued, 'reasonable' lives, free not only from quarrels, disorder or insecurity of any kind, but also from and unemployment 'passion', including physical love. They choose their mates on eugenic principles, avoid excesses of affection, and appear somewhat glad to die when their time comes. In the earlier parts of the book Swift has shown where man's folly and review essay titmuss scoundrelism lead him: but take away the folly and illiteracy and unemployment scoundrelism, and all you are left with, apparently, is a tepid sort of existence, hardly worth leading. Attempts at describing a definitely other-worldly happiness have been no more successful. Nyu Supplement Essay! Heaven is as great a flop as Utopia though Hell occupies a respectable place in literature, and has often been described most minutely and convincingly. It is a commonplace that the Christian Heaven, as usually portrayed, would attract nobody. Almost all Christian writers dealing with Heaven either say frankly that it is indescribable or conjure up a vague picture of gold, precious stones, and the endless singing of hymns. This has, it is true, inspired some of the poverty, best poems in the world: Thy walls are of chalcedony, Thy bulwarks diamonds square, Thy gates are of right orient pearl Exceeding rich and rare!

But what it could not do was to titmuss, describe a condition in poverty illiteracy and unemployment essay, which the ordinary human being actively wanted to be. Many a revivalist minister, many a Jesuit priest (see, for instance, the terrific sermon in James Joyce's Portrait of the Artist) has frightened his congregation almost out of at work their skins with his word-pictures of Hell. But as soon as it comes to illiteracy and unemployment essay, Heaven, there is leadership mba, a prompt falling-back on poverty words like 'ecstasy' and 'bliss', with little attempt to uva, say what they consist in. Perhaps the most vital bit of writing on this subject is the famous passage in which Tertullian explains that one of the poverty illiteracy essay, chief joys of limerick Heaven is illiteracy essay, watching the tortures of the damned. The pagan versions of Paradise are little better, if at managing depression all. One has the feeling it is always twilight in the Elysian fields.

Olympus, where the gods lived, with their nectar and ambrosia, and their nymphs and Hebes, the 'immortal tarts' as D.H. Lawrence called them, might be a bit more homelike than the Christian Heaven, but you would not want to spend a long time there. As for the Muslim Paradise, with its 77 houris per man, all presumably clamouring for attention at the same moment, it is just a nightmare. Nor are the spiritualists, though constantly assuring us that 'all is bright and poverty beautiful', able to describe any next-world activity which a thinking person would find endurable, let alone attractive. It is the same with attempted descriptions of perfect happiness which are neither Utopian nor other-worldly, but merely sensual. They always give an thesis impression of emptiness or vulgarity, or both. At the beginning of La Pucelle Voltaire describes the life of Charles IX with his mistress, Agnes Sorel. They were 'always happy', he says.

And what did their happiness consist in? An endless round of feasting, drinking, hunting and illiteracy essay love-making. Who would not sicken of such an existence after a few weeks? Rabelais describes the fortunate spirits who have a good time in binding, the next world to console them for having had a bad time in poverty and unemployment, this one. Review Essay Titmuss! They sing a song which can be roughly translated: 'To leap, to poverty, dance, to play tricks, to essay, drink the wine both white and red, and to do nothing all day long except count gold crowns' how boring it sounds, after all! The emptiness of the whole notion of an everlasting 'good time' is and unemployment, shown up in Breughel's picture The Land of the essaywedstrijd, Sluggard, where the three great lumps of fat lie asleep, head to head, with the boiled eggs and roast legs of pork coming up to be eaten of their own accord.

It would seem that human beings are not able to describe, nor perhaps to imagine, happiness except in illiteracy and unemployment, terms of contrast. That is why the conception of Heaven or Utopia varies from nyu supplement essay age to age. In pre-industrial society Heaven was described as a place of endless rest, and as being paved with gold, because the poverty and unemployment essay, experience of the nyu supplement, average human being was overwork and and unemployment essay poverty. The houris of the Muslim Paradise reflected a polygamous society where most of the women disappeared into the harems of the rich. But these pictures of 'eternal bliss' always failed because as the bliss became eternal (eternity being thought of as endless time), the contrast ceased to operate. Some of the conventions embedded in our literature first arose from physical conditions which have now ceased to exist. The cult of on theravada spring is an example. In the Middle Ages spring did not primarily mean swallows and wild flowers. It meant green vegetables, milk and fresh meat after several months of poverty living on salt pork in smoky windowless huts. The spring songs were gay Do nothing but eat and make good cheer, And thank Heaven for the merry year When flesh is managing depression, cheap and females dear, And lusty lads roam here and there So merrily, And ever among so merrily! because there was something to illiteracy essay, be so gay about.

The winter was over, that was the essay buddhism, great thing. Christmas itself, a pre-Christian festival, probably started because there had to illiteracy essay, be an occasional outburst of managing at work overeating and drinking to poverty illiteracy and unemployment, make a break in the unbearable northern winter. The inability of mankind to imagine happiness except in the form of relief, either from effort or pain, presents Socialists with a serious problem. Dickens can describe a poverty-stricken family tucking into a roast goose, and can make them appear happy; on the other hand, the inhabitants of perfect universes seem to have no spontaneous gaiety and are usually somewhat repulsive into the bargain. But clearly we are not aiming at depression at work the kind of world Dickens described, nor, probably, at any world he was capable of imagining. Illiteracy And Unemployment Essay! The Socialist objective is review blood, not a society where everything comes right in the end, because kind old gentlemen give away turkeys.

What are we aiming at, if not a society in poverty illiteracy, which 'charity' would be unnecessary? We want a world where Scrooge, with his dividends, and Tiny Tim, with his tuberculous leg, would both be unthinkable. Binding Thesis Limerick! But does that mean we are aiming at some painless, effortless Utopia? At the risk of and unemployment essay saying something which the editors of Tribune may not endorse, I suggest that the real objective of Socialism is not happiness. Happiness hitherto has been a by-product, and for all we know it may always remain so. The real objective of Socialism is human brotherhood. This is widely felt to be the case, though it is not usually said, or not said loudly enough. Men use up their lives in heart-breaking political struggles, or get themselves killed in managing depression, civil wars, or tortured in the secret prisons of the Gestapo, not in order to illiteracy and unemployment, establish some central-heated, air-conditioned, strip-lighted Paradise, but because they want a world in which human beings love one another instead of nyu supplement swindling and murdering one another. And they want that world as a first step. Where they go from there is and unemployment, not so certain, and the attempt to managing depression at work, foresee it in detail merely confuses the issue.

Socialist thought has to deal in prediction, but only in broad terms. One often has to aim at objectives which one can only very dimly see. At this moment, for instance, the world is at war and wants peace. Yet the world has no experience of peace, and never has had, unless the poverty and unemployment, Noble Savage once existed. The world wants something which it is dimly aware could exist, but cannot accurately define. Essay Leadership! This Christmas Day, thousands of illiteracy and unemployment men will be bleeding to death in the Russian snows, or drowning in icy waters, or blowing one another to binding limerick, pieces on swampy islands of the Pacific; homeless children will be scrabbling for illiteracy and unemployment essay, food among the nyu supplement, wreckage of German cities. To make that kind of thing impossible is poverty illiteracy and unemployment essay, a good objective. But to essay, say in detail what a peaceful world would be like is a different matter. Nearly all creators of Utopia have resembled the man who has toothache, and therefore thinks happiness consists in not having toothache. They wanted to produce a perfect society by poverty essay, an endless continuation of binding thesis limerick something that had only been valuable because it was temporary. The wider course would be to say that there are certain lines along which humanity must move, the grand strategy is mapped out, but detailed prophecy is not our business.

Whoever tries to imagine perfection simply reveals his own emptiness. This is the case even with a great writer like Swift, who can flay a bishop or a politician so neatly, but who, when he tries to create a superman, merely leaves one with the impression the very last he can have intended that the stinking Yahoos had in them more possibility of development than the enlightened Houyhnhnms. This site is protected by COPYLEFT. You are free to use any material found on this page as long it is not for a commercial purpose, or unless otherwise stated on the page. However copying this page as a whole is illiteracy essay, NOT permitted.

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2010 to 2015 government policy: employment. Updated 8 May 2015. © Crown copyright 2015. This publication is licensed under the terms of the Open Government Licence v3.0 except where otherwise stated. Poverty Illiteracy And Unemployment! To view this licence, visit nationalarchives.gov.uk/doc/open-government-licence/version/3 or write to the Information Policy Team, The National Archives, Kew, London TW9 4DU, or email: psi@nationalarchives.gsi.gov.uk. Where we have identified any third party copyright information you will need to obtain permission from the copyright holders concerned. This publication is available at https://www.gov.uk/government/publications/2010-to-2015-government-policy-employment/2010-to-2015-government-policy-employment. This is a copy of a document that stated a policy of the 2010 to 2015 Conservative and Liberal Democrat coalition government.

The previous URL of this page was https://www.gov.uk/government/policies/helping-people-to-find-and-stay-in-work. Current policies can be found at the GOV.UK policies list. Long-term unemployment is damaging to individuals and communities, it affects mental and physical health, and uva holds back economic growth. We want to poverty illiteracy and unemployment help people into work and make sure that work pays. In return, people on out-of-work benefits need to take the opportunities available to them to move off benefits and into essaywedstrijd, work. Out of work older people can find it more difficult to get a job and they are more likely than younger people to remain unemployed for longer.

We are making a number of welfare to work reforms which aim to fight poverty, support the and unemployment essay, most vulnerable and help people break the cycle of benefit dependency. Introducing measures to give Jobcentre Plus flexibility in helping people back to work. To help people get back into work we have introduced a series of on theravada measures to give Jobcentre Plus some choice over and unemployment what support to offer to claimants in their area based on claimant and binding thesis local labour market characteristics. We are working with back to work service providers, local authorities, training providers and poverty illiteracy essay employers to review find innovative ways to help people back to work. We have introduced the poverty, Work Programme to replace a range of employment schemes, pilots and projects. It provides personalised support for claimants who need more help to find and stay in work. We will pay back to work service providers according to the results they achieve. Their contracts will include incentives to support those who need more help to get into work than others, such as the long-term unemployed or disabled people. Introducing Help to Work to support the long term unemployed.

We have introduced Help to Work to nyu supplement essay help those who have completed the poverty and unemployment essay, Work Programme but have still not been able to find employment. Jobcentre Plus work coaches will work with individuals to understand their needs and tailor their back-to-work plans according to the particular barriers to work they may have. Depression At Work! Work coaches can refer claimants to and unemployment essay 3 different types of intensive support: extra intensive support from their Jobcentre Plus work coach and other local support, for example training schemes (Mandatory Intervention Regime) attending the Jobcentre every day for 3 months to talk to their work coach about the job applications they have made (daily work search reviews) a Community Work Placement for up to 6 months to gain work experience which will help improve their CV. Helping young people into work through the Youth Contract. The Wage Incentive was withdrawn 6 August 2014. Work experience, sector-based work academies, work trials and Apprenticeships are all still available. Extra funding is being allocated for a range of initiatives that will be available over the next few months to further support young people in finding work. We introduced a ?1 billion Youth Contract in review titmuss April 2012 to help young unemployed people get a job. The Youth Contract is a range of support to illiteracy make it easier for essaywedstrijd uva businesses to give young unemployed people a job, training or work experience.

It will provide nearly half a million new opportunities for 18 to 24 year olds, including apprenticeships and poverty illiteracy voluntary work experience placements. Supporting disabled people who need more help to find and keep a job. Essay Blood! We introduced ‘Work Choice’ in poverty illiteracy and unemployment October 2010, a specialist employment programme for disabled people who need more help to find and keep a job. Binding Thesis Limerick! We published the disability and health employment strategy: the discussion so far on poverty 17 December 2013. This sets out our proposals for improving employment support for disabled people and those with health conditions.

We published an update on essaywedstrijd our progress in the disability and health employment strategy: 1 year on on 8 December 2014. Co-ordinating the Health, Work and Wellbeing initiative. Poverty Illiteracy And Unemployment! We co-ordinate the essaywedstrijd uva, cross-government Health, Work and Wellbeing initiative that aims to: improve the general health and wellbeing of the working-age population and reduce the poverty illiteracy essay, number of days lost to sickness absence. support more people with health conditions to stay in work or enter employment. Essay Leadership! We are setting up a new Health and Work Service that will help people with a health condition stay in or return to work. Helping older people who want to find work or stay in work. Illiteracy! Working longer can have a positive impact on an individual’s savings for retirement, and also for the economy as a whole. We have introduced a range of measures to leadership mba support older people in poverty choosing to work longer. These include: ending the Default Retirement Age so in most cases employers can no longer force employees to retire just because they reach the binding, arbitrary age of 65 helping employers take on or keep on poverty illiteracy and unemployment essay older workers with measures such as flexible working changing legislation to protect people from age discrimination changing the rules so people can access their pension pots more flexibly and potentially choose to phase their retirement more gradually.

On Friday 13 June 2014 the essaywedstrijd, we published Fuller Working Lives: a framework for action. Illiteracy And Unemployment! This explains how working longer can benefit individuals, businesses, society and the economy and managing at work it sets out poverty illiteracy, a number of new actions we will take to help people have fuller working lives. We are working with employers and employers’ organisations to: challenge outdated assumptions about older workers improve the titmuss blood, employment and retention of older workers as part of a mixed age workforce. We have published guidance, employer case studies and research to help support employers manage an ageing workforce. address specific issues in their sectors provide guidance to employers on adopting flexible approaches to retirement and poverty illiteracy and unemployment the benefits of employing and retaining older workers alongside younger workers. Introducing a new scheme for tax-free childcare for working families. Working families will be able to claim 20% of uva childcare costs up to ?2,000 for each child under 12 under a new tax-free childcare scheme. Disabled children up to poverty illiteracy and unemployment essay the age of 16 will also be eligible, in line with existing childcare rules. The scheme will be phased in from autumn 2015 and will be open to almost 2 million families.

It will be delivered by HMRC. Supporting people with drug or alcohol dependency. Jobcentre Plus has a range of support for people with drug or alcohol dependency. A Jobseeker’s Allowance claimant with drug or alcohol dependency can volunteer for the Work Programme after claiming for 13 weeks (instead of the usual 9 or 12 months). This is subject to binding thesis limerick the normal entry requirements, availability and the agreement of essay their adviser. If treatment commitments might affect a jobseeker’s availability for work, their adviser can take this into account when agreeing the steps they take to find work.

In England and Scotland, advisers can refer claimants whose dependency is a barrier to work for a voluntary discussion with a treatment provider. In Wales, they can refer claimants to the Peer Mentoring Scheme. Leadership Mba! Sponsoring the Ethnic Minority Employment Stakeholder Group. We sponsor the Ethnic Minority Employment Stakeholder Group which advises the government on helping to make sure ethnic minorities don’t face disproportionate barriers to achievement in the labour market. The government announced plans to improve the poverty illiteracy and unemployment, help and training we provide for essay people looking for work in the coalition agreement. This included: replacing existing welfare to work programmes with a single programme to help all unemployed people get back to work making sure that contracts with welfare to work providers are based more closely on the results they achieve in getting people back to poverty illiteracy work helping unemployed people who want to become self-employed with support from business mentors and financial help offering pre-employment training and work placements for unemployed people developing local work clubs where unemployed people can share skills and make contacts. We began introducing Universal Credit in 2013 for people who are looking for work or on a low income.

Universal Credit brings together a range of working-age benefits into a single payment. It will help to smooth the depression, transitions into and out of work and encourage people on benefits to start paid work or increase their hours by making sure work pays. Reviewing specialist disability employment programmes. In December 2010, the poverty and unemployment, Secretary of State asked Liz Sayce, the Chief Executive of RADAR, the UK’s largest disability campaigning organisation, to conduct an independent review of the government’s specialist disability employment programmes. An aim of the review was to examine how more disabled people could be helped into work within the essaywedstrijd uva, available funding. The findings of that review were published on 9 June 2011 in ‘Getting in, staying in and getting on’. Welfare reform communications toolkit. Our welfare reform communications toolkit helps explain how DWP is changing the welfare system. It covers: what we are changing why we are making the essay, changes when we are making the changes.

We ran discussions with potential suppliers of the Work Programme to propose and discuss ideas on nyu supplement specific areas from poverty illiteracy 19 July 2010 to nyu supplement essay 13 August 2010. Poverty Illiteracy And Unemployment Essay! In December 2010, the Secretary of State asked Liz Sayce, the Chief Executive of RADAR, to conduct an independent review of the government’s specialist disability employment programmes. We consulted on thesis limerick the recommendations in and unemployment Liz Sayce’s review from 11 July 2011 to 17 October 2011. Depression At Work! We published our response to the consultation on 7 March 2012. We have conducted an equality impact assessment for work experience and a privacy impact assessment for work experience. The privacy impact assessment assesses the illiteracy and unemployment essay, privacy risks to individuals in the collection, use and disclosure of information. Appendix 1: managing the Work Programme. This was a supporting detail page of the main policy document. The Work Programme provides personalised support for nyu supplement essay claimants who need more help looking for poverty illiteracy and unemployment and staying in essay titmuss blood work.

Service providers have freedom to decide how best to support Work Programme participants while meeting minimum standards for illiteracy and unemployment essay delivering the service. This is uva, a major change in the way we help people move from welfare to illiteracy work in this country. We are creating a structure that treats people as individuals and allowing providers greater freedom to tailor the right support to the individual needs of each claimant. The Work Programme also gives value for money for the taxpayer by basing payments to providers largely on results they achieve. The Work Programme is part funded by the European Social Fund. The first year of the Work Programme. On 27 November 2012 we published a summary report on the first year of the essay leadership, Work Programme. It is supporting more people than any previous programme by helping people off benefit and into employment. More than half of people who joined the Work Programme in the first few months have spent some time off benefit, and, up to November 2012, according to industry data, more than 200,000 jobs had been started by Work Programme participants.

We are continuously monitoring providers’ performance and some are performing much better than others. Essay! DWP will take action with those providers who are not delivering the Work Programme to the standards we expect. Information for employers and mba providers. We have published guidance for employers and and unemployment essay Work Programme providers that will be useful if you or your organisation are interested in getting involved in helping to deliver the Work Programme or you are an employer and at work want to poverty find your local provider contact details. Managing! Employment adviser guidance for people with mental health problems.

In summer 2011 the Minister for Welfare Reform invited representatives from the Work Programme, specialist employment providers and mental health services to work together to help more people with mental health problems back into and unemployment essay, work and, through work, help them to improve their wellbeing. The representatives met regularly and in November 2011 they made a public pledge to essay mba work together to improve work and illiteracy and unemployment essay wellbeing for review essay blood unemployed people. We have improved the employment support prisoners receive when they leave jail. Everyone leaving prison and claiming Jobseeker’s Allowance will be immediately referred to illiteracy and unemployment the Work Programme, where they will receive specialist support to get them into essay, employment as quickly as possible. Senior managers from and unemployment essay Work Programme providers and DWP meet at the Work Programme National Partnership Forum. The purpose of the forum is to share experiences of implementing the Work Programme and discuss emerging policy that may have an essay on theravada buddhism, impact on the programme. Appendix 2: introducing a tax-free childcare scheme. This was a supporting detail page of the main policy document. Department for Education survey data shows that nearly a quarter of employed mothers would increase their working hours if they could arrange good quality childcare which was convenient, reliable and affordable. The scheme will be available to children under the age of 5 from autumn 2015, and all working parents with children under 12 will be covered within the first year. Poverty! Disabled children under the age of 17 will also be eligible, in line with existing childcare rules.

The new scheme will be available to working families who each earn less than ?150,000 a year, and essay titmuss don’t already receive support through Tax Credits or Universal Credit. In two parent familes, both parents must be in work to qualify. For every 80p eligible families pay in, we will put in 20p, providing support of up to ?2,000 a year for each child. The scheme will be open to almost 2 million families and will be delivered by HMRC. Appendix 3: co-ordinating the Health, Work and Wellbeing initiative. This was a supporting detail page of the main policy document. Find out about Fit for Work that will help people with a health condition stay in or return to work. Poverty Essay! Health, Work and Wellbeing is a cross-government initiative that aims to: improve the essaywedstrijd, general health and wellbeing of the working-age population support more people with health conditions to poverty illiteracy essay stay in work or enter employment.

We work with employers, trades unions and healthcare professionals to: create healthier workplaces improve occupational health services and rehabilitation support increase employment opportunities for people who are not in work due to ill health or disability. educating individuals and raising awareness improving the range and capacity of occupational health services providing practical and at work effective support for employers, especially small businesses encouraging public sector organisations to lead by example on health at work. Poverty Illiteracy And Unemployment Essay! This work brings benefits to: individuals, through better health employers, through improved productivity and reduced sickness absence government, through fewer people claiming sickness benefits and reduced health spending. The Health, Work and essaywedstrijd Wellbeing initiative is supported by 6 government partners: The initiative has resulted in essay a number of measures, including those below. More information is available about how it began in 2005 and in the National Archives. We have introduced Fit for nyu supplement Work to illiteracy essay help employees stay in or return to essay on theravada work.

It is free and poverty and unemployment provides an occupational health assessment and general health and nyu supplement essay work advice to employees, employers and GPs . There are two elements to Fit for Work: free, expert and impartial work-related health advice through a website and telephone line referral to an occupational health professional for employees who have been off sick or who are likely to poverty illiteracy essay be off sick for 4 weeks or more. The advice element is available now. For more information visit: There will be a phased roll out of the referral service taking place over essaywedstrijd uva a period of months – we will announce details in early 2015. The Fit for Work occupational health professional will identify obstacles preventing the employee from returning to work. They will produce a ‘return to illiteracy work plan’ tailored to thesis limerick the employee’s needs. GPs will normally refer people to Fit for Work. Employers may also refer an employee if, after 4 weeks absence, they have not been referred by essay their GP . We have published guidance for employees, employers and GPs on using Fit for Work. We will update this guidance regularly as referrals begin to be accepted for occupational health assessments, to reflect the roll out across Great Britain. Reducing the number of days lost to sickness absence. On 17 February 2011 the review blood, government set up a review of the sickness absence system to help reduce the 140 million days lost to sickness absence every year. The review was jointly chaired by David Frost, former Director General of the British Chambers of Commerce, and Dame Carol Black, then National Director for Health and Work.

The review considered how the poverty illiteracy and unemployment essay, current sickness absence system could be changed to help people stay in work, reduce costs and contribute to essaywedstrijd uva economic growth and whether these costs are appropriately shared between the state, individuals and employers. The review presents an important analysis of the: sickness absence system in the UK impact of sickness absence on employers, the state and individuals factors which cause and prolong sickness absence and which, in poverty illiteracy and unemployment essay too many cases, mean that employees move out of uva work entirely and on to benefits roles that healthcare professionals, employers and government services play. The government published its response to the sickness absence review’s recommendations on 17 January 2013. The response outlines a strategy to support the health and wellbeing of the working age population and poverty illiteracy and unemployment essay examines: setting up a health and work assessment and advisory service improving sickness absence management supporting healthcare professionals reforming the benefits system. Fit note (statement of fitness for work) The fit note replaced the old ‘sick note’ in essay 2010. The fit note allows doctors to provide advice to their patient about the effects of their health condition and how they might be able to return to work while they recover. The fit note also helps employers to illiteracy and unemployment support their employees back to review work as soon as possible, so that they retain skills that are critical to business success. Occupational health advice services for small businesses and GPs.

Small and medium sized businesses face particular challenges when accessing occupational health advice. The occupational health advice services operate in England, Scotland and Wales and are funded by DWP. Healthy Working UK provides information for GPs and other primary healthcare professionals. It includes news, training and decision aids to support the management of health and poverty illiteracy work, including the fit note. Managing! The website was developed by Royal College of General Practitioners, the Society of essay Occupational Medicine and depression at work the Faculty of Occupational Medicine, with support from DWP. The Workplace wellbeing tool allows employers to work out the costs of poor health and wellbeing to poverty illiteracy and unemployment their business. It helps them build a business case for action to reduce those costs and improve the health and wellbeing of their employees. Public Health Responsibility Deal. Organisations that have volunteered to join the Public Health Responsibility Deal are taking action to improve public health. They do this through their responsibilities as employers, as well as through their commercial actions and community activities. The employer’s charter aims to help employers understand exactly what they can and can’t do when managing staff.

It covers assessments of depression at work fitness to and unemployment essay work and depression at work action employers can take in connection with sickness absence. Employing disabled people and people with health conditions: guidance for employers. We publish case studies of Health, Work and Wellbeing initiatives to help others understand and follow best practice. Evidence, research and policy papers. Find out how the initiative started and read our evidence, research and policy papers – including Working for essay a healthier tomorrow, Carol Black’s 2008 review of the health of Britain’s working age population. Contact the Health, Work and Wellbeing team. Contact the Health, Work and Wellbeing team if you have any questions about the initiative or a case study they may want to on theravada consider. Appendix 4: supporting disabled people who need more help to find and poverty illiteracy and unemployment keep a job.

This was a supporting detail page of the main policy document. We introduced ‘Work Choice’ in October 2010, a specialist employment programme for disabled people who need more help to find and keep a job. Work Choice is nyu supplement essay, operated through DWP contracted providers and Remploy, it is voluntary and provides: help through all stages of finding and getting a job help to stay in work, where the other DWP work schemes might not be suitable help for those who want to and unemployment essay become self-employed. Nyu Supplement Essay! We expect around 23,000 people to be supported by Work Choice in each year of the programme with an average of about 9,000 of them to poverty illiteracy moving into employment each year. Employers can benefit from binding limerick employing a young person aged 18-24 on the Work Choice programme through the wage incentive. We can provide employers with help towards the wages of a young person that they take on through Work Choice in a job lasting more than 26 weeks. This is worth up to: ?1,137.50 for part-time work between 16 and 29 hours a week ?2,275 for full-time work of 30 hours or more a week. Helping with extra costs disabled people face in work.

We provide money through the Access to Work scheme towards the extra costs that will help a disabled person do their job, beyond what it is reasonable for their employer to meet. On 12 March 2015, the Minister for Disabled People announced that Access to Work grants will be limited to poverty illiteracy essay one and a half times average salary for each award. This is ?40,800 at binding thesis current rates. The limit will apply: from 1 October 2015 to new awards of Access to Work grants from 1 April 2018 to awards of Access to Work grants made before 1 October 2015. More people are seeking help from Access to Work and it is no longer sustainable to continue to meet all applicants’ needs on an unlimited basis. Illiteracy Essay! Introducing a limit on the amount of awards will mean that the scheme can continue to support disabled people to thesis find and stay in work. Access to essay Work advisers will work with disabled people to help them decide how to spend their grant most effectively. Thesis! We are continuing to illiteracy and unemployment look at ways of making Access to Work more efficient and effective, so more disabled people can be helped to get and keep jobs. This will include looking at essay titmuss ways to make sure employers are meeting their duty to make reasonable adjustments to support their employees.

Appendix 5: helping older people who want to find or stay in work. This was a supporting detail page of the main policy document. Out of work older people can find it more difficult to get a job and they are more likely than younger people to remain unemployed for longer. Poverty Essay! For example, around 46% of unemployed people aged over 50 have been unemployed for managing at work 12 months or more compared with around 30% of Jobseeker’s Allowance claimants aged 18 or over (Office for National Statistics Labour Market Statistics, January 2014). Working longer can have a positive impact on an individual’s savings for retirement, and also for the economy as a whole.

For example: an average earner who starts using their savings 10 years early to poverty and unemployment retire could see their pension pot over a third smaller, and spread over a much longer retirement UK Gross Domestic Product (GDP) could have been ?18 billion higher in 2013 if the uva, difference in illiteracy and unemployment essay employment levels between people in their 40s and essay titmuss those aged 50 to State Pension age was halved. There is a commonly held misunderstanding that increasing employment for older people blocks jobs for younger workers. However, a recent report by the Institute for and unemployment essay Fiscal Studies concluded there was ‘no evidence of long-term crowding-out of younger individuals from the review essay blood, labour market by older workers’. Thriving businesses, large and small from across all sectors, report the benefits of employing younger and older workers: McDonald’s have 20% higher performance in those outlets that employ workers aged over 60 as well as younger workers South Wales Forgemasters have no retirement age – they say there are no concerns about reduced progression opportunities and the process of poverty illiteracy essay training new staff has been improved greatly by involving experienced, skilled workers as trainers on the company’s apprenticeship scheme. Working to improve older worker employment in the main business sectors. Older worker employment varies across and within the main business sectors because of essay different approaches to recruitment and working practices. In all sectors many older workers leave earlier than they would like. Fortunately many employers report clear business benefits of effectively managing an ageing workforce – retaining the skills of illiteracy essay older workers while bringing on younger workers.

On 13 June 2014 we published Fuller Working Lives: a framework for action. This explains how working longer can benefit individuals, businesses, society and the economy. It sets out essay, a number of poverty and unemployment essay new actions we will take to help people have fuller working lives. Binding! We have published guidance about employing older workers and working past 50. This includes the ‘Employer toolkit: guidance for managers of older workers’, produced in poverty partnership with the Age Action Alliance, that covers all business sectors.

The toolkit is available as an limerick, interactive version and to download as a PDF. The toolkit builds on our previous Age Positive guidance. This provides case studies and tried and poverty illiteracy and unemployment essay tested solutions to managing an leadership mba, ageing workforce from recruitment through to poverty addressing under-performance. Appendix 6: introducing measures to give Jobcentre Plus flexibility in nyu supplement essay helping people back to work. This was a supporting detail page of the main policy document. Jobcentre Plus managers have flexibility to offer the following measures to help claimants back to work in their area, based on claimant and local labour market characteristics. Not all measures will necessarily be available in all areas.

Helping young unemployed people gain work experience. The work experience programme helps young people gain the illiteracy essay, experience they need to get a job. Some young people have difficulty finding a job because they do not fully understand the world of work or have not had a chance to prove themselves. Jobcentre Plus works with employers to offer 18 to managing at work 24 year old jobseekers the opportunity to overcome these barriers, through work experience placements lasting 2 to 8 weeks available through the Youth Contract. In certain circumstances people over the age of 24 may be eligible for work experience. Young people on work experience will continue to receive their benefit and continue to illiteracy and unemployment essay look for permanent work. Nyu Supplement Essay! Jobcentre Plus will cover the costs of travel and childcare if required.

Some participants can have their work experience extended by up to 4 weeks if an employer offers to poverty illiteracy take them onto an apprenticeship. Providing training, work experience and essay mba a guaranteed interview in sectors with high local vacancies. Through sector-based work academies we offer pre-employment training, work placements and a guaranteed interview in sectors with high volumes of local vacancies for claimants of: Jobseeker’s Allowance Employment and Support Allowance (work-related activity group) We have published guidance for employers about using sector-based work academies in England and Scotland to help fill their vacancies. Helping people develop skills and illiteracy experience through mandatory work activity. A Jobcentre Plus work coach may ask a claimant to take part in a mandatory work placement of up to 4 weeks. Essay! If they do not take part, they could lose their benefits for illiteracy and unemployment essay a period of time. The aim is to help the claimant develop the essaywedstrijd uva, skills and behaviours employers are looking for and to help them get into the habit of attending work on time and every day. Helping people who want to start their own business. We’ve introduced the New Enterprise Allowance to help unemployed people who want to start their own business. It can provide mentoring support and money to help people start their own business if they get certain benefits and have a business idea that could work.

By May 2013, the scheme had resulted in: around 2,000 new businesses being set up each month – more than 26,000 in poverty illiteracy and unemployment total over 6,000 businesses being started by people aged 50 or over nyu supplement over 4,500 disabled people becoming their own boss. Encouraging people who want to become self-employed to share their experiences. We support the setting up of Enterprise Clubs to provide unemployed people interested in becoming self-employed with a place to share experiences and get help from other people who want to become self-employed, as well as local business people and advisers. Encouraging people who are out of work to share skills and experience. We support the setting up of local Work Clubs as a way of encouraging people who are out of work to share skills and experience.

Promoting volunteering to improve employment prospects. Through Work Together we are encouraging unemployed people to think about volunteering as a way of improving their employment prospects while they are looking for work. Jobcentre Plus offices offer space for the Prince’s Trust and local volunteer centres to essay provide advice on review essay blood volunteering. Poverty Essay! Introducing flexibility for some people in full-time training to remain on Jobseeker’s Allowance. Review Essay Blood! We have introduced flexibility so that a claimant who has been on poverty Jobseeker’s Allowance for 6 months or more may attend full-time training and remain on Jobseeker’s Allowance rather than moving onto a training allowance. Titmuss! This only applies to training of up to illiteracy and unemployment essay and including 30 hours a week and which lasts for a maximum of 8 weeks.

Appendix 7: introducing Help to Work to support the essay leadership, long term unemployed into work. Illiteracy And Unemployment Essay! This was a supporting detail page of the main policy document. We introduced Help to Work on 28 April 2014 to essay help those who have completed the Work Programme and still not found a job move into poverty, work. Help to Work gives 3 options of intensive support to help the long-term unemployed into work. Intensive Jobcentre support (Mandatory Intervention Regime) This is for claimants with multiple or complex barriers to work. The Jobcentre Plus work coach will spend more time with the on theravada, claimant looking at how to illiteracy essay tailor back-to-work support. They will have more flexibility to: send people on training schemes refer people to other local services which may help remove barriers to work cover costs to remove barriers to work, such as initial travel costs or suitable clothes for a job interview. Daily work search reviews (attending the Jobcentre every day) This is for claimants who would benefit from regular support with looking for jobs. The claimant will attend their Jobcentre every day for limerick a meeting with their work coach. The meeting will look at: progress made in poverty essay looking for work how they can improve their skills.

The daily meetings could last for managing depression up to 3 months. This is for poverty illiteracy and unemployment essay claimants whose lack of work experience may be holding them back from finding a job. Their work coach may ask them to take part in essaywedstrijd uva a work placement that will also benefit the local community. The purpose is to give the claimant skills and experience within the work place. The placements will be for up to poverty illiteracy and unemployment 6 months for up to 30 hours a week.

The claimant will also receive at least 4 hours job searching support each week to help turn the work experience into on theravada, full time employment. After 5 months on a Community Work Placement, Leon’s perseverance paid off and he was offered a full-time job with a parcel delivery firm.. Claimants who do not take part in the Help to Work scheme. Claimants who do not take part in poverty illiteracy the Help to Work scheme when asked to by their work coach could lose their benefits for a period of time. All content is essay on theravada buddhism, available under the Open Government Licence v3.0, except where otherwise stated.

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Food Industry Generated by MIDA's English Website Food Industry Malaysia's food industry is as diverse as the multi-cultures of essaywedstrijd uva, Malaysia , with a wide range of processed food with Asian tastes. In 2008, the food processing industry contributed about 10% of Malaysia's manufacturing output and companies. Minimum Wage Legislation – Good or Bad for Business in Malaysia? Discuss. to minimum wage in Malaysia was started by the Malaysian Trade Union Congress (MTUC) as a result of increase in the salary of government servants. They demanded the government to increase the illiteracy wage of employees in essay leadership mba private sectors by organising a nationwide picket throughout Malaysia . Their request to. Is Death Penalty a Deterrent for Crime Offenders? Essay Is death penalty a deterrent for crime offenders? Opinion.

Death penalty is commonly being argued among each other if it is a right act upon a crime offender. However, there is a death penalty practising in many countries worldwide including Malaysia .Currently, many countries have completely. commission, dividends, interest and etc. Most of the countries employ a progressive income tax system in which higher income people will pay a higher tax rate compare with the lower income people. Normally, it has two types of income tax for each country, which are personal income tax and corporation income. negative way. Knowledgeable member of the media are voliferously agree about the extremely dentrimental effect on our lifestyle caused by poverty illiteracy and unemployment, the media. In Malaysia ,, we are wwll known as a country that full of traditional culture. Nyu Supplement. The media exposes our young generation to the western life. Illiteracy And Unemployment. We can see the teenagers.

Crime and Punishment in Various Countries. decades. Even with laws to lengthen sentences and to try younger offenders as adults, the depression at work overall crime rate in the nation is still on the rise. But why is it that in places like Iceland and Singapore crime rates are so low yet both countries have very contrasting criminal laws? It has been brought to and unemployment essay, my. Introducing Malaysia was formed in 1963 through a federation of the former British colonies of Malay and Singapore, including the review titmuss East Malaysian States of Sabah and Sarawak on the northern coast of Borneo. The country is divided into 13 States and 3 Federal Territories. Geography Malaysia is located.

Crime is either legally defined, as an illiteracy act which breaks the law, or normatively defined, an thesis limerick act which breaks expected norms and morals such as religion. The definition of illiteracy and unemployment essay, crime is also dependent on the time, culture, society and legal system within a country. For example, in Amsterdam the use of cannabis. crusher, etc. Fote mobile crushing plant can be operate in the toughest environments and feature nominal set-up times, market leading productivity rates and excellent reliability. Jaw crusher has been improved by incorporating fully independent high amplitude, hydraulically driven pre-screen with increased. COMPUTER CRIME Crime is essay buddhism a common word that we always heard in this globalization era. Poverty And Unemployment. Crimes refer to any violation of law or the buddhism commission of an illiteracy and unemployment act forbidden by thesis, law. Crime and criminality have been associated with man since long time ago. There are different strategies practices by different countries.

?Right realism sees crime , especially street crime , as a real and growing problem that destroys communities, undermines social cohesion and threatens society's work ethic., especially in poverty the US, and review essay titmuss, one of the key right realists is James Q. Wilson. It can be argued that these views have also influenced. has long been accepted by individual and even institutional investors as an important asset class for diversification (Adair et al, 1994). In Malaysia , residential property has become a popular investment asset. Poverty Illiteracy And Unemployment. Survey results from visitors to the iproperty.com website from December 2011 to January. EMPLOYMENT DISMISSAL PROCEDURES AND LAWS IN THE UNITED KINGDOM AND MALAYSIA. Articles/2013/Volume 6/Employment Dismissal Procedures and Laws in the United Kingdom and Malaysia -- A Legal Analysis [2013] 6 MLJ xxi Articles 2013 EMPLOYMENT DISMISSAL PROCEDURES AND LAWS IN THE UNITED KINGDOM AND MALAYSIA -- A LEGAL ANALYSIS GURU DHILLON1 Purpose -- The purpose of this paper. Car Rental in Malaysia to 2019: Databook- JSB Market Research. ?Car Rental in leadership mba Malaysia to 2019: Databook Released On 27th June 2015 Summary Car Rental in Malaysia to 2019: Databook contains detailed historic and poverty illiteracy essay, forecast data covering the review titmuss car rental market in the travel and tourism industry in Malaysia . Poverty Illiteracy Essay. This databook provides data on customer. ?UOP CJA 314 Week 1 Individual Crime Data Comparison Paper. Week 1 Individual Crime Data Comparison Paper To purchase this material link http://www.assignmentclick.com/CJA-314/CJA-314-Week-1-Individual- Crime -Data-Comparison-Paper For more courses visit our website http://www.assignmentclick.com/ CJA 314 Week 1 Individual Crime Data Comparison.

Punishment does not amount to crime in the American society. Crime is increasing and there is blood more and more people getting thrown into prison for and unemployment essay the wrong things. Nyu Supplement Essay. Punishment now leads to earlier release dates and shorter sentences. Poverty Illiteracy And Unemployment. Serious crime rates declined significantly in American society. a) With respect to the given caselet, examine the managing at work concern and possible risks situations to i) Zairama Trading (5m) The possible risk will be the crime risk. According to the case study, Zarima Trading has to pay 75% cash deposit for the consignment to them then only the manufacturers will make delivery. Still and Sparkling Wine Market Research and Analysis in Malaysia - JSB Market Research. and Sparkling Wine Market in poverty illiteracy Malaysia to 2019 Released On 9th June 2015 Summary The report Still and on theravada buddhism, Sparkling Wine Market Research and Analysis in Malaysia to 2019 is the and unemployment result of extensive market research covering the Still and Sparkling Wine market in Malaysia . The report presents detailed. 'Balik kampung' can be defined as going back to one's hometown to celebrate a festival or an occasion. It is a unique experience for review essay blood some of and unemployment, us in Malaysia . This phrase conjures an essaywedstrijd image of tranquility, green postures and laughter.

However, balik kampung can bring adverse effects to the holiday makers. Reasons for an Increase Crime Among Young People. Crime : Discuss the reasons for an increase crime among young people and the ways in which they can be encouraged to poverty and unemployment essay, behave differently. Binding Thesis Limerick. Abstract Crime ,which drastically increasing among youngsters.Resulting corrupted community for poverty illiteracy essay the future and fails to produce productive young people in. general crimes such as ‘Murder’, ‘Robbery’, ‘Cheating’, etc, only the crimes which are directed specifically against Women are characterised as ‘ Crimes Against Women’. Uva. Various new legislations have been brought and poverty illiteracy and unemployment, amendments have been made in existing laws with a view to handle these crimes effectively. Effects of managing depression, Illegal Immigrants in poverty illiteracy and unemployment essay Malaysia.

Effects Of Illegal Immigrants In Malaysia Illegal immigrants are people who migrate across national borders without complying with legal requirements. In “Illegal immigrants in Malaysia ,” (2012), it has been found that in essay on theravada Malaysia , they comprise a portion of the country population, numbering as many.

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So, don't waste the limerick, space. How Long Should a Career Summary on a Resume Be? Depending on poverty illiteracy essay who you ask, you will be told that a good example of a resume summary is leadership mba, anywhere from three to six sentences. As I mentioned in the beginning, an average recruiter will only spend six seconds looking at poverty and unemployment essay a resume. That converts to essaywedstrijd about 20 or 30 words, which is around the length of a Tweet. You should also pay attention to the fact that a reader scanning a document will skip over large blocks of text. With that in mind, you should consider keeping your personal resume summary statement on the shorter side: Around 3 sentences or 50 words. Pro Tip: Resume summaries tend to poverty and unemployment essay be short. Take a look at a sample resume template from our resume builder. You can create a similar resume here.

A resume template from our resume builder - create your resume here. How to essay leadership mba Write a Resume Summary in 7 Easy Steps. 1. How to Start a Summary With a Few of Your Best Accomplishments. When you start writing a professional summary for poverty illiteracy, a resume, it is best to sit down for a moment and think back over managing depression, the long span of your career. What are my brightest moments? What am I proud of achieving? What do I love most about what I do? What do I do best?

Once you’ve brainstormed, make a list of essay your achievements (about six bullet points). This is your master list. Here is what it would look like if you were, for example, Indiana Jones: Indy’s Master List of Accomplishments and essay on theravada Top Skills. Found the and unemployment, Ark of the Covenant. Found the Sankara Stones.

Found the essay, Holy Grail. Effectively able to dispatch Nazi bad guys. Proficient in poverty illiteracy and unemployment, the use of a bullwhip. Able to review essay fly planes, ride horses, and commandeer motorcycles. Keep in mind that these are the brightest moments and poverty illiteracy can come from any point in your career. Now make a quick list of your top transferable skills.

Transferable skills are skills that you can use in any job . For example, being able to write or being able to speak fluent Spanish. Research and analytical thinking skills (70% of my work is done in the library). Excellent cultural sensitivity. Able to work in a high-stress, fast-paced environment. Linguist (Speak fluent German, Hindi, and Mandarin Chinese - among other languages). Now you have a master list of essay leadership your achievements and a master list of your transferable skills. Set these aside for a moment. And make sure you read this article to find out what skills are currently the most desirable for resumes. You will also find actionable tips on poverty illiteracy and unemployment essay how to showcase your skills on essay a resume, and a pretty cool infographic featuring R2D2. What does R2D2 have to do with resume skills?

Find out illiteracy, here. 2. Scan the nyu supplement, Job Post - Find out What the poverty essay, Employer Needs. Keywords are the particular skills or qualities an employer lists in a job post. Highlight or underline the keyword skills that you find in your job description. Who are they looking for? What value do they want an employee to essay provide? What extra skills or qualities not listed would add unexpected value? Indy’s Job Description - Cocktail Server. 3. Research the Job - Find Out What is Valuable.

Find a few similar job posts. Poverty Essay! Again, highlight or underline all of the keyword skills and requirements. Compare the new keywords to those in your job description. Anything that does not have a duplicate could add extra value to your resume. Look up other professionals on LinkedIn with the essay on theravada, same job as the one you want. Illiteracy! Their skills section should give you a sense of what recruiters value in that profession. 4. Tailor Your List - Make Your Skills List a Recruiter’s Wish List. Which of my skills and accomplishments match those listed in the job description? How do my accomplishments and skills position me to binding thesis solve the poverty, employer’s problems?

What details can I add for amplification (numbers, details, proof like certificates or awards)? 5. Binding Thesis Limerick! Start With Your Title to Define Yourself Out of the Gate. Starting a professional summary for a resume with your professional title allows a recruiter to know right away that your resume is relevant. Pro Tip: Make your professional title bold in order to draw attention to it, so that it is easy for recruiters to find. You will also want to add the number of years you worked in poverty essay, that position. Sassy Marketing Manager with 5+ years of experience. 6. Focus on Specific Results to Prove and Demonstrate Value. Now it’s time to go back to your master list. Condense your list of 6 accomplishments down to about 3 concise and essay mba specific sentences. As you describe your accomplishments and skills, add numbers, details, and illiteracy and unemployment essay proof. Focusing on thesis limerick quantifiable results in a career summary for a resume does a couple of things:

Draws the eye of the recruiter and gives them a tangible sense of what you’ve achieved. Provides proof that your claims are more than just hot air. Poverty Essay! Sets you above other candidates who did not elaborate on their accomplishments. Helps the recruiter imagine you achieving the same results for them. Indy’s Professional Resume Summary Sample. Cocktail Waiter Improved collection of tickets onboard German zeppelin by thesis limerick 100%.

An analytical, fast learner with 2+ years of experience in global, on-demand service positions on zeppelins, boats, and trains. Essay! Leveraged extensive cultural and linguistic knowledge (Mandarin Chinese and Hindi) to recover the Sankara Stones while maintaining the highest level of customer service. Able to essaywedstrijd endure exposure to elements such as lava and snake pits, and able to physically outmaneuver such obstacles as giant boulders in boobytrapped tombs. Guest Services, Sales, and People Skills Able to illiteracy and unemployment Learn and binding thesis Master New Information Basic Math Bilingual Extensive Physical Activity Exposure to Elements. As you can see, Indy starts his sample resume summary statement by opening with the title of the poverty illiteracy and unemployment, job (one of essay titmuss his professional titles) and a headline. His headline is supported by details: He then adds five of the poverty illiteracy and unemployment essay, six skills from the job description that match his skill set to his resume summary . He also adds details to amplify the information:

“Linguistic knowledge” is amplified by review titmuss blood “Mandarin Chinese and Hindi,” which also covers the “Bilingual” language bonus from the job description. He avoids the first person, has added keywords like “exposure to elements,” and has added extra value by exhibiting experience in poverty essay, wait service on review essay titmuss blood various modes of transportation that might be interesting to an employer seeking a waiter to serve drinks on a boat. Dr. Jones has also managed to squeeze in a transferable skill - “cultural sensitivity/knowledge.” 7. The Name Drop - A Tried and True Way to poverty illiteracy Generate Interest. Mention the on theravada, organizations, clients, and past employers that you’ve worked for where appropriate. Name dropping is an poverty and unemployment, old marketing technique that you can use when writing a resume summary for a resume to impress and essaywedstrijd establish authority and credibility. One word of warning: Employers could see name dropping as unprofessional snobbery. Illiteracy Essay! You need to make sure you don’t cross the line.

Also, you don't want to name drop confidential clients - because, you know, they're confidential. What you can do instead is say: I worked with top, global clients from managing, (insert specific industry here) . It is best to name drop when it proves the thing you want to show the hiring manager in a professional summary for a resume. The candidate who did it right has name dropped to and unemployment prove that her clients are large, multi-national companies. The 7 Dos and essay Don’ts of and unemployment essay Writing a Resume Summary. 1. Thesis Limerick! Consider Adding a Headline for poverty illiteracy and unemployment essay, Extra Oomph. After you write your title, you can add a headline that sums up the main benefits of essay leadership hiring you. Improved collection of tickets onboard German zeppelin by 100%. 2. Microsoft Word is Not an Accomplishment So Leave It Out.

Leave your core competencies for illiteracy essay, the skills section of your resume. The resume summary section is for your best skills and keyword skills. Essay! Microsoft Office is boring and illiteracy and unemployment pedestrian. Your mom, your sister, and your dog can all use Word. And to further avoid being boring in a professional summary for a resume, consider using action verbs to describe your best skills. Avoid boring adjectives like “articulate” or “innovative.” Also, get rid of overused verbs like “managed” or “organized.” Action verbs are energetic and specific:

Don’t go overboard. You don’t want to sound like a Freshman English major flexing a large vocabulary for the sake of it. Remember that you should use keywords even if they are adjectives. There is a good chance that your resume will be fed through an Applicant Tracking System (ATS). The ATS will scan your resume for keywords from the job description. So you need to include them throughout your resume. 3. Ditch the First Person Pronouns to Focus on the Employer.

By skipping the “I” and “me” stuff, your resume summary section will stay focused on the employer. When you use the third person and the present tense, a recruiter will be able to envision you doing that work for them. Here are some resume summary statement examples with and without the first person. If you think it's more appropriate to use the first person, you should. It's up to thesis you to decide. 4. Essay! Ignore Tasks You Hate For Your Sake. When you are making lists of what to include on a resume don’t add anything you hate doing. Same goes for a summary in a resume. If you hate doing something (even if you are really good at it), leave it.

You will just get stuck doing it again at your new job, and it won’t make you happy. 5. Avoid Being Generic By Tailoring Each Resume Summary to essay blood the Job. Yes, that’s right. Every time you respond to a different job post, you will need to essay write a new resume summary. The professional resume summary is only at peak effectiveness if you tailor it to fit one job description. So, if you are applying for mba, 100 jobs, you need 100 resume summaries. You don't have to rewrite the entire thing. You can simply retouch your best resume summary by changing keywords.

Just make sure that it is tailored to the job post. How long should a resume be? In a word: short. Some experts will tell you about the “one-page rule.” You should aim for one page, but resumes are not glass slippers. Illiteracy Essay! You do not need to cram everything on one page like an essaywedstrijd uva, ugly stepsister if it doesn't fit. A good rule of thumb is to condense resume sections like the resume summary section at the end of the writing process. Trim the fat and keep it lean. Good professional summary examples don't exceed a paragraph of text or a few bullet points. If you're having trouble with the poverty and unemployment essay, length of your resume, have a look at our guide on essay resume length: How Long Should A Resume Be?

Everything You Need To Know 7. Avoid the Cardinal Sin of poverty essay Resume Writing. No good will come out of lying on nyu supplement essay your resume - even if it’s just a little white lie. Maybe you aren’t as good at creating spreadsheets as you made it sound. And Unemployment Essay! Good luck explaining that when an elaborate spreadsheet is your first task. Let's say you lie in leadership, your hobbies section - you say you like Game of Thrones when you don't. Who cares?

Maybe the rabid fan who is conducting your interview. Now you know nothing, Jon Snow. Uh oh. The best resume summary grabs recruiters’ attention by shouting out: And this is useful when it falls into the hands of a bored and overworked recruiter. In three punchy lines, you can show anyone reading your resume the brightest moments of your career and your dazzling set of skills. Bonus: Download these super-actionable examples of resume summaries that match real job posts here: Resume Summary Examples for Your Profession.” Do you have any question about illiteracy essay, how to managing at work write a great resume summary for your position?

Leave a comment. Illiteracy And Unemployment! I'll be happy to answer. Natalie is a writer at titmuss Uptowork. She loves writing about resumes and eating tacos more than life itself. She spends her free time reading complicated novels and binge watching TV series.